Leon has a large general trade, and manufactures cotton and woollen fabrics, ice, cigars, boots, shoes and saddlery; its tanneries supply large quantities of cheap leather for export.
The various trades of weaving, saddlery, glove-making, collarmaking, candle-making and soap-making were carried on during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, but have lost their importance.
The factories consist of flour-mills, distilleries, tanneries and tobacco works; but a great many domestic trades, including carpet-weaving and the making of felt goods, saddlery and iron goods, are carried on, among both the settled inhabitants and the nomad Kirghiz.
In the same way certain governments become famous for certain commodities, as Moscow for osier baskets, flower baskets, wicker furniture and lace; Kostroma for lace, wooden utensils, toys, wooden spoons, cups and bowls, bast sacks and mats, bast boots and garden products; Yaroslavl for furniture, brass samovars, saucepans, spurs, rings, &c.; Vladimir for furniture, osier baskets and flower-stands and sickles; NizhniyNovgorod for bast mats and sacks, knives, forks and scissors; Tver for lace, nails, sieves, anchors, fish-hooks, locks, coarse clay pottery, saddlery and harness, boots and shoes, and so on.
Carpets (especially at Shusha), silk, cotton and woollen goods, felts and fur cloaks are made, and small arms in Daghestan and at Tiflis, Nukha and Sukhumkaleh; silversmiths' work at Tiflis, Akhaltsikh and Kutais; pottery at Elisavetpol and Shusha; leather shoe-making at Alexandropol, Nukha, Elisavetpol, Shusha and Tiflis; saddlery at Sukhum-kaleh and Ochemchiri on the Black Sea and at Temirkhan-shura in Daghestan; and copper work at Derbent and Alexandropol.
Other important manufactures, with their product-values in 1905, are lumber and planing-mill products, $5 08, 953; fancy and paper boxes and wooden packing boxes, $432,522; coffee and spices, 8245,689; foundry and machineshop products, $238,576; and saddlery and harness, $235,839.
In 1905 the census reports did not include manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464), saddlery and harness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors ($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements.
Among the manufactures are furniture, hosiery and knit goods, agricultural implements, foundry and machine-shop products, saddlery and harness, &c. The total value of all factory products in r905 was $15,276,129.
It manufactures saddlery and other leather work, gold and silver embroideries, cotton and woollen goods, especially rebozos (long shawls), soap and cutlery.
There are some cotton manufactures; and the place is celebrated for its richly ornamented saddlery made from deerskin.
The industries include shipbuilding, and the manufacture of saddlery and other leather products, bricks and tile, rum, beer, chocolate and coco-nut oil.
The values of other products in 1905 were as follows: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $15,620,931; lumber and timber products (which employed the largest average number of wage-earners-13,332, or 27.2 per cent.), $16,278,240; cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $10,472,742; printing and publishing, $7,782,247; foundry and machine shop products, 1905, $4,952,827; malt liquors, $4,153,938; saddlery and harness, 1905, $3,251,525.
A first-class arsenal, which can renew the materiel and equipment of a large army, embraces a gun factory, carriage factory, laboratory and small-arms ammunition factory, small-arms factory, harness, saddlery and tent factories, and a powder factory; in addition it must possess great store-houses.
Under A we should have the following departments and stores: - Departments of issue and receipt, pattern room, armoury department, ordnance or park, harness, saddlery and accoutrements, camp equipment, tools and instruments, engineer store, magazines, raw material store, timber yard, breaking-up store, unserviceable store.
The principal suks are el-Attarin (market of the perfumers), el-Farashin (carpets and cloths), el-Serajin (saddlery) and el-Birka (jewelry).
Among the other important manufactures in 1905 were: chemicals, valued at $3,964,726; slaughtering and meat packing, $2,933,877; varnish, $2,893,305; stamped ware, $2,689,766; enamelled goods, $2,361,350; boots and shoes, $2,382,051; reduction of gold and silver, not from ore, $2,361,350; corsets, $2,081,761; paints, $1,812,463; silverware and silver-smithing, $1,780,906; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $1,742,862; hardware, $ 1, 6 16, 755; buttons, $1,281,528, and saddlery hardware, $1,151,789.
Thus, locks are a specialty at Wolverhampton and Willenhall, and keys at Wednesfield; horses' bits, harness-fittings and saddlery at Walsall and Bloxwich, anchors and cables at Tipton, glass at Smethwick, and nails and chains at Cradley.
Other manufactures consist of a strong coarse cotton cloth called kham (which forms the dress of the common people, and for winter wear is padded with cotton and quilted), boots and shoes, saddlery, felts, furs and sheepskins made up into cloaks, and various articles of domestic use.
Before the rebellion Yun-nan Fu had a prosperous aspect; the shops were large and well supplied with native silken goods, saddlery, &c., while English cotton, Russian cloths and raw cotton from Burma constituted the main foreign merchandise.
And cigarettes, saddlery and harness, patent medicines and compounds, cotton goods, furniture, confectionery, carriage and wagon materials, wooden packing boxes, woollen goods, pottery and terra cotta ware, structural iron-work, and turned and carved wood.
It is a livestock market, and one of the chief centres in the United States for the manufacture of saddlery and leather goods, and of cotton-gin machinery.
Among the manufactures are flour, carriages, saddlery, canned vegetables, furniture, incubators and beer.
Other industrial establishments of importance include petroleum refineries, ship-yards, brick, stone and lime works, saddlery and harness factories, lithographing establishments, patent medicine works, chemical works, and copper smelters and refineries.
From Mongolia come leather, saddlery, sheep and horses, with coral, amber and small diamonds from European sources; from Kham perfumes, fruits, furs and inlaid metal saddlery; from Sikkim and Bhutan rice, musk, sugar-balls and tobacco; from Nepal broadcloth, indigo, brasswork, coral, pearls, sugar, spices, drugs and Indian manufactures; from Ladak saffron, dried fruits and articles from India.
In its bazaars an active trade in agricultural produce, glass, pottery, saddlery, and copper and iron ware is carried on; but the manufacture of fire-arms, for which Prizren was long famous throughout European Turkey, has suffered greatly from foreign competition.
Horses must be fed; the wages of grooms and helpers be paid; saddlery, clothing, shoeing, &c., are items; farmers, innkeepers, railway companies, fly-men and innumerable others benefit more or less directly.
Among other manufactures were gypsum wall-plaster, saddlery and harness, malt liquors and tobacco, cigars and cigarettes.
Tanning and saddlery are carried on by the natives with primitive methods, but with excellent results.
The most important products are saddlery and leather-work, horses' bits and all metal harness fittings; there are iron and brass foundries, and locks, keys, bolts and other hardware are made, both in Walsall and at Bloxwich, a large industrial suburb.
Some seventy or eighty factories are engaged in cotton cleaning; while leather, saddlery, paper and cutlery are the principal products of the domestic industries.