This measure, which States, seemed to the pious an act of sacrilege, and to Italian patriots an outrage on the only independent sovereign of the peninsula, sufficed for the present.
Laymen were punishable in the court Christian for the delits following: injury to sacred or religious places, sacrilege, heresy (except where it was a " royal case "), sorcery, magic, blasphemy (also punishable in the secular court), adultery, simony, usury and infractions of the truce of God (Fournier, pp. 90-93).
The subject matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Russia during the whole patriarchal period included matrimonial and testamentary causes, inheritance and sacrilege, and many questions concerning the Church domains and Church property, as well as spiritual offences of clergy and laity (ib.).
Peter permanently transferred to the secular forum the testamentary jurisdiction and that concerning inheritance, as also questions of " sacrilege " (ib.
In other words the governors were ordered merely to punish sacrilege, and, under Aurelius, Christianity was regarded as such.
In 105, Caepio suffered a crushing defeat from the Cimbri at Arausio (Orange) on the Rhone, which was looked upon as a punishment for his sacrilege; hence the proverb Aurum Tolosanum habet, of an act involving disastrous consequences.
But Herod was not dead yet, and the instigators and the agents of this sacrilege were burned alive.
SACRILEGE, the violation or profanation of sacred things, a crime of varying scope in different religions.
But wherever the idea of sacred exists, sacrilege is possible..
The history of sacrilege reflects a large phase of the evolution of religion.
The whole wide field of Jewish taboo naturally involves sacrilege as its reverse side.
Such violations of holy things as making mock of the Scriptures, or even reciting them as one would ordinary literature, was sacrilege in the eyes of the rabbi.
But it was rather that an enlarged application of the idea of sacred made the crime of sacrilege in the sense of violatio sacri a more general one.
This was partly due to the influence of Christianity, which sought to include as objects of sacrilege all forms of church property, rather than merely those things consecrated in pagan cults, partly to the efforts of the later emperors to surround themselves and everything emanating from them with highest sanctions.
In the Theodosian Code the various crimes which are accounted sacrilege include - apostasy, heresy, schism, Judaism, paganism, attempts against the immunity of churches and clergy or privileges of church courts, the desecration of sacraments, &c. and even Sunday.
Along with these crimes against religion went treason to the emperor, offences against the laws, especially counterfeiting, defraudation in taxes, seizure of confiscated property, evil conduct of imperial officers, &c. There is no formal definition of sacrilege in the code of Justinian but the conception remains as wide.
In the earliest of them, sacrilege in the narrower sense is not a separate class of crime, but the wider usage goes with variations through the different collections.
The practice of magic, superstition, &c., are also frequently referred to as sacrilege, especially during the long struggle with German heathenism.
A somewhat distorted, but well-substantiated use of the word sacrilegium in medieval Latin was its application to the fine paid by one guilty of sacrilege to the bishop.
The worst sacrilege of all, defiling the Host, is mentioned frequently, and generally brought the death penalty accompanied by the cruellest and most ignominious tortures.
Yet even in the enlightened 18th century popular fanaticism made of sacrilege the most heinous offence.
"Theft sacrilege" was treated in a separate series of equally savage clauses.
Old age was held in high honour, but it was sacrilege to speak, or even to think, of the dead.
He revoked numerous pensions and grants conferred by his predecessors upon idle courtiers, and, meeting the reproach of sacrilege made by the patriarch of Constantinople by a decree of exile, resumed a proportion of the revenues of the wealthy monasteries.
His reputation for sacrilege, increased five years later by the abolition of many monasteries, became notorious when the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861) took away all the dominions of the pope except the patrimony of Peter, thereby reducing the papal provinces from twenty to five, and their population from over 3,000,000 to about 685,000.
"If all Russians are in the least like you, it is sacrilege to fight such a nation," he said to Pierre.