In official usage the term is applied to any person, whether owner of a large estate or cultivating member of a village community, who is recognized as possessing some property in the soil, as opposed to the ryot, who is regarded as having only a right of occupancy, subject in both cases to payment of the land revenue assessed on his holding.
The zamindar was conspicuous and useful; the village community and the cultivating ryot did not force themselves into notice.
Such matters are discussed and decided by the collector at the jamabandi or court held every year for definitely ascertaining the amount of revenue to be paid by each ryot for the current season.
The Famine Commission of 1901 suggested the following measures with a view to improving the position of the Bombay ryot: (1) A tenancy law to protect expropriated ryots, (2) a bankruptcy law, (3) the limitation of the right of transfer, in the interests of ryots who are still in possession of their land.
As the land tax forms the mainstay of the imperial revenue, so the ryot or cultivator constitutes the unit of the social system.
"ryot," an Indo-Persian variant of the same word), the name given to the non-Moslem subjects of a Mahommedan ruler; all who pay the haraj or poll-tax levied on unbelievers.