On the west this valley is bounded by the Congo mountains, which form the wall of the rift-valley, on the east by the mighty range of Ruwenzori, whose heights tower over 16,000 ft.
Albert Nyanza, on the other hand, is threatened in the distant future with destruction from another cause - the filling of its bed by the alluvium poured into it by the Semliki, the Victoria Nile and, in a lesser degree, by other streams. The Semliki receives directly or indirectly the whole of the drainage of Ruwenzori, and also that of the eastern face of the Congo mountains as well as the drainage basin of Albert Edward Nyanza.
The amount of alluvial matter carried is enormous; from Ruwenzori alone the detritus is very great.
Thence it crosses that lake in a straight line and afterwards the Ruwenzori to its highest point, Margherita peak, whence it follows the Lamia River to its junction with the Semliki.
The rainfall on Ruwenzori and the central Semliki valley is quite loo in.
Along the Ruwenzori range are glaciers and snowfields nearly 15 m.
The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.
Ruwenzori is a snowy range, and not a single mountain.
There are also giant yew-trees (Podocarpus) on the flanks of Ruwenzori and theMfumbirovolcanoes between 7000 and 9000 ft., but no junipers.
Having made the first survey of Victoria Nyanza and confirmed Speke's guesses as to its shape and area, Stanley passed on (half discovering Ruwenzori on the way) to the Congo.
Taking with him Kasagama, the rightful king of Toro, he traversed the north of Ankole, with which country he made a treaty, and passing thence through Unyoro, along the northern slopes of Ruwenzori, reached Kavali at the south end of Lake Albert, defeating the armies of Unyoro who opposed his progress.
Roscoe in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute between 1900 and 1908; the duke of the Abruzzi, " The Snows of the Nile," in The Geographical Journal (February 1907); De Filippi, Ruwenzori (1908); J.
Wollaston, From Ruwenzori to the Congo (2908); Seymour Vandeleur, Campaigning on the Upper Nile and Niger (1898).
It includes some of the volcanic peaks which, north of Lake Kivu, stretch across the rift-valley and attain heights of 13,000 and 14,000 ft.; Albert Edward Nyanza and part of the Semliki river; part of Ruwenzori, the so-called" Mountains of the Moon,"with snow-clad heights exceeeding 16,50o ft.
In the year named a small steamer (the "Ruwenzori") was launched on the lake by a Zanzibar firm, while in 1900 a somewhat larger steamer (the "William Mackinnon"), built in Glasgow at the instance of Sir W.
Hardly less important is the Ruwenzori range (over 16,600 ft.), which lies east of the western trough.
In the African portion Ruwenzori is regarded by some geologists to be a block mountain or horst.
North of the lake a high alluvial plain stretches to the southern slopes of the Ruwenzori mountains.
From Ruwenzori a subsidiary range, known as the Kipura mountains, runs due south to the lake shore, where it ends in a low rounded hill.
Lake Dweru, the shores of which are generally high, is fed by the streams from the eastern slopes of the Ruwenzori range.
The old Kitwara empire, which comprised the plateau land between the Ruwenzori range and Kavirondo, had broken up into small states, usually governed by a Hamitic (Ba-Hima) aristocracy.
The effect of the Glacial epoch in Europe is shown in northern Africa by the moraines of the higher Atlas, and the wider extension of the glaciers on Kilimanjaro, Kenya and Ruwenzori, and by the extensive accumulations of gravel over the Sahara.