RUTHENIUM [[[symbol]] Ru, atomic weight To' 7 (O = 0)1, in chemistry, a metallic element, found associated with platinum, in platinum ore and in osmiridium.
A precipitate of ruthenium oxide gradually separates; this is collected and ignited in a graphite crucible and finally fused in the oxyhydrogen furnace (H.
A purer ruthenium is obtained by A.
Pure ruthenium tetroxide distils over.
Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.
Chem., 1905, (2), 71, p. 452) by reducing ruthenium salts with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of gum-arabic.
Several oxides of ruthenium have been described, the definite existence of some of which appears to be doubtful.
Fusion with caustic potash converts it into a mixture of potassium ruthenate and ruthenium sesquioxide, Ru 2 0 3, which is a black, almost insoluble powder.
The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.
Ruthenium dichloride, RuC1 2, is obtained (in solution) by reducing the sesquichloride by sulphuretted hydrogen or zinc. It is stable in the cold.
The sesquichloride, Ru 2 C1 6, is formed when a mixture of chlorine and carbon monoxide is passed over finely divided ruthenium heated to 350° C. (Joly, Comptes rendus, 1892, 114, p. 291).
Ru2C16.4KC1; Ru 2 C1 6.4NH 4 C1, &c. The pure tetrachloride, RuC1 4, has not been isolated, but is chiefly known in the form of its double salts, such as potassium ruthenium chloride, K 2 RuC1 6, which is obtained when finely divided ruthenium is fused with caustic potash and potassium chloride is gradually added to the fused mass (U.
Ruthenium sulphides are obtained when the metal is warmed with pyrites and some borax, and the fused mass treated with hydrochloric acid first in the cold and then hot.
Ruthenium sulphate, Ru(S04)2, as obtained by oxidizing the sulphide, is an orange-yellow mass which is deliquescent and dissolves in water, the solution possessing a strongly acid reaction.
Rouge de Ruthene, Ru 2 (OH) 2 C1 4 (NH 4) 7, is obtained from ammonia and ruthenium sesquichloride at 40° C., the product being purified by crystallization from ammonia.
Potassium ruthenium cyanide, K4Ru(CN) 6.3H 2 O, formed when potassium ruthenate is boiled with a solution of potassium cyanide, crystallizes in colourless plates which are soluble in water.
A ruthenium silicide, RuSi, has been prepared by H.
The atomic weight of ruthenium was determined by A.
The most recently discovered " platinum metal," ruthenium, was recognized by C. E.
Aqua Regia, a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, converts all metals (even gold, the "king of metals," whence the name) into chlorides, except only rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which, when pure, are not attacked.
Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.
Anodic polarization in potassium chloride solution renders molybdenum, niobium, ruthenium, tungsten, and vanadium passive (W.