In the RussoTurkish War the Servian army, under the personal command of King Milan, besieged Nish, and forced it to capitulate on the 10th January 1878.
The conduct of Italy in declining the suggestions received from Count Andrssy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the RussoTurkish Warthat Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia for the extension of Austrian sway in the Balkansand in subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared.
During the RussoTurkish War of 1877-78 the self-exiled Circassians and other Caucasian mountaineers, supported by a force of 14,000 Turks, made a determined attempt to wrest their native glens from the power of Russia; but, after suffering a severe defeat at the hands of General Alkhazov, the Turks withdrew, and were accompanied by some 30,000 Abkhasians, who settled in Asia Minor.
Thereafter the Russians advanced practically unchecked (see RussoTURKISH Wars).
It precipitated the RussoTurkish war of 1828-1829, and, by annihilating the Ottoman navy, weakened the resisting power of Turkey to Russia and later to Mehemet Ali.
This, and the two campaigns of the RussoTurkish war of 1828-29, decided the issue.
It was occupied by the Russians in 1829 and 1878 (see RussoTURKISH Wars).
He helped to upset the government of King Otho and to establish his successor, was prime minister in 1864-1865, came back from retirement to preside over the ministry formed during the crisis of the RussoTurkish war, and died in office on the 15th of September 1877.
In 1828 he was employed in the field in the RussoTurkish War, and at the siege of Varna he was given the grand cordon of the Alexander order.
The RussoTurkish War of 1877-78 followed, concluded by the treaty of San Stefano, the terms of which were modified in Turkey's favour by the congress of Berlin (1878), which marks the beginning of the later phase of the Eastern Question.
In 1 7551 757 plague prevailed in parts of European Turkey, whence it on one occasion extended into Transylvania, in the neighbourhood of Cronstadt, where it was checked (25.5° E.).3 In 1770 a destructive plague arose in Moldavia during the RussoTurkish War, and shortly afterwards in Wallachia, apparently endemic in the former country at least.