On their refusal the Russians attacked them at 3 a.m.
In 1810 it was captured by the Russians, who destroyed the fortifications.
A monument was erected in 1901 to commemorate the Russians who fell.
Three times captured by the Russians, in 1791, 1807 and 1828, and twice restored by them, in 1792 and 1812, it was finally left in their hands by the treaty of Adrianople in 1829.
During the Crimean War its fortifications were destroyed (1855) by the Russians themselves.
Of the 25,301 foreign-born in 1900, 5114 were Germans; 3485, Irish; 337 6, Swedes; 3344, English; 2623, English-Canadian; 1338, Russians; and 1033, Scots.
The Russians in Turkestan form only about 5% of the total pop., and since most of the rural Mussulman pop. take no part in the voting, the country is governed to all intents and purposes by men elected by the very small proportion of Russians of the lower classes living in the towns.
Taken by storm on New Year's day 1813 by the Russians, Lenkoran was in the same year formally surrendered by Persia to Russia by the treaty of Gulistan, along with the khanate of Talysh, of which it was the capital.
The most important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the whole of the northern coast of Siberia.
To the east of Cape Chelyuskin the Russians encountered greater difficulties.
Two of Leroy-Beaulieu's works have been translated into English: one as the Empire of the Tsars and the Russians, by Z.
Kirghiz form 76% of the population, Taranchis 5.7%, Russians 14% and Dzungans most of the remainder.
The chief occupation of the Russians, the Taranchis and the Dzungans, and partly also of the Kirghiz, is agriculture.
It was then seized by the French, who in 1799 had to yield to the Russians and Turks.
But since the Russians became masters of this region, its former inhabitants (Circassian tribes) have emigrated in thousands, so that the country is now only thinly inhabited.
There again his proficiency, especially in physical science, was marked, and he was one of the young Russians chosen to complete their education in foreign countries.
During the Turco-Russian campaign of 1829 it was the headquarters of Mustafa Pasha of Skodra, and was occupied by the Russians for a few days.
This plateau formation - the oldest geological continent of Asia - being unfit for agriculture and for the most part unsuited for permanent settlement, while its oceanic slopes have from the dawn of history been occupied by a relatively dense population, long prevented Slav colonization from reaching the Pacific. The Russians chanced to cross it in the 17th century at its narrowest and most N.
The statistics of these show that there was during the thirty-two years, 1856-88, an excess of emigration over immigration of 1,146,052 in the case of Russians, and a surplus of immigration of 2,304,717 foreigners.
During the years 1900-4 inclusive the total emigrants from Russia numbered 2,358,539, of whom 1,144,246 were Russians; while the immigrants numbered 2,333,053, of whom 1,432,057 were foreigners.
The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland are surrounded by what is ethnologically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians have taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva.
It is only within the last hundred and thirty years that the Russians have definitely taken possession of the N.
(Great, Little and White Russians), it will be seen that, with the exception of some 3,000,000 Little Russians, now settled in East Galicia and in Poland, and of a few on the southern slope of the Carpathians, the whole of the E.
The Russians have absorbed and assimilated in the course of their history a variety of Finnish and Turko-Finnish elements.
The Russians do not emigrate as isolated individuals; they migrate in whole villages.
Russian type has thus been maintained from Novgorod to the Pacific, with but minor differentiations on the outskirts - and this notwithstanding the great variety of races with which the Russians have come into contact.
Three different branches can be distinguished among the Russians from the dawn of their history: - the Great Russians, the Little Russians (Malorusses or Ukrainians), and the White - Russians (the Byelorusses).
And S., with perhaps an intermediate stream, the proper place of of the White Russians not having been as yet exactly determined.
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
Moreover, notwithstanding the unity of language, it is easy to detect among the Great Russians themselves two separate branches, differing from one another by slight divergences of language and type and deep diversities of national character - the Central Russians and the Novgorodians.
Many minor anthropological differentiae can be distinguished among both the Great and the Little Russians, depending probably on the assimilation of various minor subdivisions of the Ural-Altaians.
Religion.-Most of the Russians and the Georgians belong to the Orthodox Greek Church (over 4,000,000 in all); but considerable numbers (estimated at nearly 122,000, though in reality probably a good many more) are Nonconformists of different denominations.
In 1678 it was captured by the elector of Brandenburg, but was restored to the Swedes in the following year; in 1713 it was desolated by the Russians; in 1715 it came into the possession of Denmark; and in 1721 it was again restored to Sweden, under whose protection it remained till 1815, when, along with the whole of Swedish Pomerania, it came into the possession of Prussia.
The soil of these plains is generally very fertile and they support a population of nearly 2,800,000 Russians, composed of Cossacks and peasant immigrants, settled chiefly along the rivers and grouped in large, wealthy villages.
The inhabitants of the Kura valley consist principally of Iranian Tates and Talyshes, of Armenians and Lesghians, with Russians, Jews and Arabs.
The master of the latter province had beaten off an attack of the Russians in 1502, and secured a fifty years' peace.
An attempt to obtain possession of the promontory was made by Peter the Great, but it was not definitely annexed by the Russians until seventy years afterwards (1769).
The words " Asiatic " and " Oriental " are often used as if they denoted a definite and homogeneous type, but Russians resemble Asiatics in many ways, and Turks, Hindus, Chinese, &c., differ in so many important points that the common substratum is small.
The Russians captured it from them in 1723, but restored it in 1735; it was incorporated in the Russian empire in 1806.
Aided by the Russians, his troops drove Stanislaus Leszczynski from Poland; Augustus was crowned at Cracow in January 1734, and was generally recognized as king at Warsaw in June 1736.
The Troitsk or Trinity monastery is the most sacred spot in " middle Russia, the Great Russians regarding it with more veneration than even the cathedrals and relics of the Kremlin at Moscow.
In the war which followed the emperor himself took part, but it was not brought to a successful conclusion till the help of the Russians had been called in.