Other letters, however, have been taken over from the Runic and Latin alphabets.
Within are some admirable specimens of encaustic tiles, and several monuments of the Vernon and Manners families; while an ancient runic roodstone stands in the churchyard.
It is carved with figures of soldiers, priests, slaughtered men and captives on one side, and on the other with a cross and Runic ornamentation.
(On the largest of these lions is cut a runic inscription recording an attack on the Piraeus in the 11th century by Norse warriors of the Varangian guard, under Harold Hardrada, afterwards - s047 - king of Norway.) The arsenal suffered frequently and severely from fires, the worst being those of 1509 and 1569; yet such was the wealth of Venice that in the following year she put upon the seas the fleet that crushed the Turks at Lepanto in 1571.
George Low (1747-1795), the naturalist and historian of Orkney, who made a tour through Shetland in 1774, described a Runic monument which he saw in the churchyard of Crosskirk, in Northmavine parish (Mainland), and several fragments of Norse swords, shield bosses and brooches have been dug up from time to time.
Wooden coffins, with skeletons wrapped in coarse hairy cloth, and both pagan and Christian tombstones with runic inscriptions have been found.
But somewhat later they have probably met with the Eskimo farther north on the west coast in the neighbourhood of Disco Bay, where the Norsemen went to catch seals, walrus, &c. The Norse colonists penetrated on these fishing expeditions at least to 73° N., where a small runic stone from the 14th century has been found.
A runic stone commemorates the building of a bridge here by a Christian missionary, Austmader, son of Gudfast.
- The earliest coins which can be identified with certainty are some silver pieces which bear in Runic letters the name of the Mercian king 'Ethelred (675-704).
The Runic alphabet seems to have been the only form of writing known to the Anglo-Saxons before the invasion of Britain, and indeed until the adoption of Christianity.
Originally the Runic alphabet seems to have been used for writing on wooden boards, though none of these have survived.
Coins with Runic legends were issued at least until the middle of the 8th century, and some of the memorial stones date probably even from the 9th.
Eventually this alphabet was enlarged (probably before the end of the 7th century) by the inclusion of two Runic letters for th and w.
Stephens, The Old Northern Runic Monuments (London and Copenhagen, 1866-1901); W.
In Germany very few Runic inscriptions have been found, and there is nothing to show that the alphabet was used after the 8th century.
Among the subjects of antiquarian interest are Queenzie Neuk, the spot where Queen Mary rested on her journey to Langside, the old steeple and pillory built in the reign of Charles I., the Mote Hill, the old Runic cross, and the carved gateway in the palace park.
By this time the Teutonic peoples had probably acquired the art of writing, though the origin of their national (Runic) alphabet is still disputed.
Wimmer supports his thesis with great learning and ingenuity, and when allowance is made for the fact that a script to be written upon wood, as the runes were, of necessity avoids horizontal lines which run along the fibres of the wood, and would therefore be indistinct, most of the runic signs thus receive a plausible explanation.
2 Be this as it may, the resemblances between the runic and the Mediterranean alphabets are too great to admit of denial that it is from a Greek alphabet, whether directly or indirectly, that the runes are derived.
Hempl's initiative was followed by Professor Gundermann of Giessen, who announced in November 1897' that he had discovered the source of the runic alphabet, the introduction of which he declares preceded the first of the phonetic changes known as the " Teutonic sound-shifting," since < = g is used for k, X = x for g, a Theta-like symbol for d, while zd is used for st.
In one of the earliest runic records which we possess, the pendant found at Vadstena in Sweden in 1774, and dating from about A.D.
Two years later he published Five Pieces of Runic Poetry, translated from the Islandic. In 1763 he edited the earl of Surrey's poems with an essay on early blank verse, translated the Song of Solomon, and published a key to the New Testament.
Stephens, Handbook to the Runic Monuments (London, 1884), p. 203; F.
Although the heathen Angles had their own runic alphabet, it is unlikely that any poetry was written down until a generation had grown up trained in the use of the Latin letters learned from Christian missionaries.
P 227) that the ogams originated in Pembroke, " where there was a very ancient Teutonic settlement, possibly of Jutes, who, as is indicated by the evidence of runic inscriptions found in Kent, seem to have been the only Teutonic people of southern Britain who were acquainted with the Gothic Futhoro."
We hear also a good deal of witches and valkyries, and of charms and magic; as an instance we may cite the fact that certain (Runic) letters were credited, as in the North, with the power of loosening bonds.