After Newton's time the first vigorous effort to restore the universality of the doctrine of energy was made by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, and was published in the Phil.
Rumford was engaged in superintending the boring of cannon in the military arsenal at Munich, and was struck by the amount of heat produced by the action of the boring bar upon the brass castings.
Rumford then turned up a hollow cylinder which was cast in one piece with a brass six-pounder, and having reduced the connexion between the cylinder and cannon to a narrow neck of metal, he caused a blunt borer to press against the hollow of the cylinder with a force equal to the weight of about ro,000 lb, while the casting was made to rotate in a lathe.
Taking into account the heat absorbed by the box and the metal, Rumford calculated that the heat developed was sufficient to raise 26.58 lb of water from the freezing to the boiling point, and in this calculation the heat lost by radiation and conduction was neglected.
Finally, Rumford reviewed all the sources from which the heat might have been supposed to be derived, and concluded that it was simply produced by the friction, and that the supply was inexhaustible.
Though we may allow that the results obtained by Rumford and Davy demonstrate satisfactorily that heat is in some way due to motion, yet they do not tell us to what particular dynamical quantity heat corresponds.
Lockyer was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1869, and received the Rumford medal in 1874.
Davy, Count Rumford, all concerned themselves with thermochemical investigations of such processes.
Was conferred upon Brewster by Marischal College, Aberdeen; in 1815 he was made a member of the Royal Society of London, and received the Copley medal; in 1818 he received the Rumford medal of the society; and in 1816 the French Institute awarded him one-half of the prize of three thousand francs for the two most important discoveries in physical science made in Europe during the two preceding years.
He was especially interested in questions relating to the polarization of light, and his observations in this field, which gained him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1840, laid the foundations of the polarimetric analysis of sugar.
BENJAMIN THOMPSON RUMFORD, Count (1753-1814), British-American man of science, philanthropist and administrator, was born at Woburn, in Massachusetts, on the 26th of March 1753.
His wife was the widow of Colonel Benjamin Rolfe, and the daughter of Timothy Walker, "a highly respectable minister, and one of the first settlers at Rumford," now called Concord, in New Hampshire.
In 1791 he was created a count of the Holy Roman Empire, and chose his title of Rumford from the name as it then was of the American township to which his wife's family belonged.
The elector fled from his capital, and it was entirely owing to Rumford that a hostile occupation of the city was prevented.
In 1800, and Rumford himself selected Sir Humphry Davy as scientific lecturer there.
Rumford was the founder and the first recipient of the Rumford medal of the Royal Society.
He was also the founder of the Rumford medal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Rumford professorship in Harvard University.
The fact that Romford (Rumford, Rompford) lies on the high road between Colchester and London has determined its history.
This was the only method known until the invention of the mechanical air-pumps; it was subsequently employed by Count Rumford, and as late as 1845, Edward A.
His work won him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1838, and in 1843 he received its Royal medal for a paper on the "Transparency of the Atmosphere and the Laws of Extinction of the Sun's Rays passing through it."
The English garden (Englischer Garten), to the north-east of the town, is 600 acres in extent, and was laid out by Count Rumford in imitation of an English park.
He presided over the meeting of the British Association in 1891, and during the five years1900-1905acted as president of the Royal Society, from which he at different times received a Royal, a Copley and a Rumford medal.
Mayer has also been styled the discoverer of the fact that heat consists in (the energy of) motion, a matter settled at the very end of the 18th century by Count Rumford and Sir H.
Sabine remarked when awarding him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1872, contains a fundamental principle of spectrum analysis, and though for a number of years it was overlooked it entitles him to rank as one of the founders of spectroscopy.
The Royal Society in 1894 bestowed the Rumford medal upon him for his work in the production of low temperatures, and in 1899 he became the first recipient of the Hodgkins gold medal of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, for his contributions to our knowledge of the nature and properties of atmospheric air.
Among the principal buildings are the state capitol, the state library, the city hall, the county court-house, the post-office, the Fowler public library, the state hospital, the state prison, the Centennial home for the aged, the Margaret Pillsbury memorial hospital, the Rolfe and Rumford asylum for orphan girls, founded by the countess Rumford, and several fine churches, including the Christian Science church built by Mrs Eddy.
The conflicting rights of Rumford and Bow gave rise to one of the most celebrated of colonial land cases, and although the New Hampshire authorities enforced their claims of jurisdiction, the privy council in 1755 confirmed the Rumford settlers in their possession.
This achievement won for him, in 1878, the prix Lacaze and membership of the Academy of Sciences in France, and the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in England.
At the time of his death he was preparing an edition of his collected works, and the portions ready for the press were published in two volumes as Memoires de chimie in 1805 by his widow (in that year married to Count Rumford), who had drawn and engraved the plates in his Traite elementaire de chimie (1789).
Rumford proposed to eliminate this correction by starting with the initial temperature of the calorimeter as much below that of its enclosure as the final temperature was expected to be above the same limit.
In recognition of this work he received in 1868 the Rumford medal of the Royal Society, into which he had been elected six years before.
Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) occupied the village and built a British fort here near the close of the American War of Independence.
Soon afterwards, Count Rumford, requiring a lecturer on chemistry for the recently established Royal Institution in London, opened negotiations with him, and on the 16th of February 1801 he was engaged as assistant lecturer in chemistry and director of the laboratory.
Melloni received the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1834.
But from 1900 to 1905 the value of manufactures grew most rapidly in Rockland (especially noted for lime), the increase being from $1,243,881 to $1,822,591 (46.5%), and in Waterville, where the increase was from $2,283536 to $3,069,309 (34.4%) Among the largest paper mills are those at Millinocket, in Penobscot county, at Madison on the Kennebec river, and at Rumford Falls on the Androscoggin river.
He was in 1823 unanimously elected a member of the academy, and in 1825 he became a member of the Royal Society of London, which in 1827, at the time of his last illness, awarded him the Rumford medal.
He was awarded the Janssen medal by the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1894, the Rumford medal by the American Academy in 1902, the Draper medal in 1903, a gold medal by the Royal Astronomical Society in 1904, the Bruce medal by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1916, and the Janssen medal by the Astronomical Society of France in 1917.
Among colonial houses still standing are the birthplace of Count Rumford (in North Woburn), built about 1714, and now preserved by the Rumford Historical Association as a depository for the Rumford Library and historical memorials, and the Baldwin mansion (built partly in 1661 and later enlarged), the home of Loammi Baldwin (1780-1838), known as "the father of civil engineering in America."
For the next twelve years (passed chiefly in London or at Largo, with an occasional visit to the continent of Europe) he continued his physical studies, which resulted in numerous papers contributed by him to Nicholson's Philosophical Journal, and in the publication (1804) of the Experimental Inquiry into the Nature .and Properties of Heat, a work which gained him the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society of London.
Sadi Carnot with the conclusions of Count Rumford, Sir H.