Although Servia was protected from the consequences of defeat by the intervention of Austria, Prince Alexander's success sealed the union with Eastern Rumelia, and after long negotiations he was nominated governor-general of that province for five years by the sultan (April 5, 1886).
The union in 1885 of Bulgaria with Eastern Rumelia, the severance of which had been the great triumph of the Berlin Congress, was another blow.
By Bulgaria (Eastern Rumelia), E.
This was partially remedied after the Bulgarian annexation of Eastern Rumelia, in 1885, had driven the Moslems of that country to emigrate in like manner to Adrianople; but the advantage was counterbalanced by the establishment of hostile Bulgarian tariffs.
Napoleon also promised to mediate between Russia and Turkey in the interests of the former, and (in case the Porte refused to accept the proffered terms) to help Russia to drive the Turks from Europe, "the city of Constantinople and the province of Rumelia alone excepted."
The Austrian map of central Europe embraces the whole of the Balkan Peninsula on a scale of 1:200,000; the Russian surveys (1877-1879) are embodied in a map of the eastern part of the Balkan on a scale 1: 126,000, and a map of Bulgaria and southern Rumelia, on a scale 1: 200,000, both published in 1883.
Above them were the beylerbeys of Anatolia and Rumelia, who served under the orders of the commander-in-chief.
In 1843 the corps d'armee of Constantinople, Rumelia, Anatolia and Arabia were formed, and a military council was appointed.
These are too numerous for detailed mention, but the following periods may be cited as the most interesting:1833-1841(Egyptian question);1849-1859(Crimean War and the events by which it was preceded and followed);1868-1869(Cretan insurrection);1875-1881(Bosnian and Herzegovinian insurrection, Russo-Turkish War, Berlin treaty and subsequent events);1885-1887(union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria);1889-1890(Cretan disturbances);1892-1899(Armenian and Cretan affairs);1902-1907(Macedonia);1908-1910(revolution and reform).
When Constantinople fell in 1453 the whole country passed into the hands of the Turks, and in their possession it remained until 1878, when, in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin, the northern portion of it was placed under a separate administration, with the title of Eastern Rumelia; this province has now become, to all intents and purposes, a part of the principality of Bulgaria.
In that year he commanded the patriot forces in Rumelia, and though he failed to co-operate effectually with other chiefs, or with the foreign sympathizers fighting for the Greeks, he gained some successes against the Turks which were very welcome amid the disasters of the time.
Incensed by the debasing of the coinage, which robbed them of part of their pay, they invaded the Divan clamouring for the heads of the sultan's favourite, the beylerbey of Rumelia, and of the defterdar (finance minister), which were thrown to them (April 3, 1589).
The threatened breach with Russia had been avoided by Metternich's influence on the tsar Alexander; the death of Ali of Iannina had set free the army of Khurshid Pasha, who now, as seraskier of Rumelia, was charged with the task of reducing the Morea.
The Greeks had in all some 7000 men, Suliotes, Albanians, armatoli from Rumelia, and some irregular Bulgarian and Vlach cavalry.
The economic condition of Adrianople was much impaired by the war of 1877-78, and was just showing signs of recovery when, in 1885, the severance from it of Eastern Rumelia by a Customs cordon rendered the situation worse than ever.
But the separation of Eastern Rumelia isolated Adrianople, and transferred to Philippopolis at least two-thirds of its foreign trade which, as regards sea-borne merchandise, is carried on through the port of Burgas.
The hill-sides afford pasture for 20,000 sheep. No forests exist on the island; all wood is brought from the coast of Rumelia or from Thasos.
Ali was now confirmed in the possession of all his father's territory and was also appointed lieutenant to the derwend-pasha of Rumelia, whose duty it was to suppress brigandage and highway robbery.
The Bulgars, who descend from a fusion of the Slavonic element with a later Ugro-Finnish immigration, inhabit the kingdom of Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia), parts of the Dobrudja and the greater part of Macedonia, except Old Servia and the Aegean littoral.
The treaty of Berlin followed, which limited the principality to the country between the Danube and the Balkans, created the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia south of the Balkans, and left the remainder of the proposed Bulgarian state under Turkish rule.
In 1886 the informal union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria was sanctioned by Europe, the districts of Tumrush (Rhodope) and Krjali being given back to the sultan.
In 1908 Bosnia and Herzegovina were annexed to the Dual Monarchy, and Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia) was proclaimed an independent kingdom.
But the revolt of Eastern Rumelia, followed by the Servo-Bulgarian War and the coercion of Greece by the powers, embittered the rivalry of the various races, and the project was laid aside.
The union of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia inspired King Milan and his government with the notion that either that union must be prevented, or that Servia should obtain some territorial compensation, so that the balance of power in the Balkan Peninsula might be maintained.
" The capital, " says a writer in the Konstantinopler Handelsblatt of November 1904, " produces very little for export, and its hinterland is small, extending on the European side only a few kilometres - the outlet for the fertile Eastern Rumelia is Dedeagach - and on the Asiatic side embracing the Sea of Marmora and the Anatolian railway district.
Some 750 tons of the sweetmeat known as ` Turkish delight ' are annually exported to the United Kingdom, America and Rumelia; embroideries, &c., are sold in fair quantities to tourists.
The capture of Adrianople, followed by other conquests, brought about a coalition under the king of Hungary against Murad, but his able lieutenant Lalashahin, the first beylerbey of Rumelia, defeated the allies at the battle of the Maritsa in 1363.
Part of Macedonia, Eastern Rumelia and a tract farther south).
RUMELIA, or Roumelia (Turkish Rumili, " the land of the Romans," i.e.
Eastern Rumelia was constituted an autonomous province of the Turkish empire by the Berlin treaty of 1878; but on the 18th of September 1885, after a bloodless revolution, it was united with Bulgaria (q.v.).