Di Rudini, and the arrival of reinforcements.
Meanwhile the marquis de Rudini, who had succeeded Crispi as Italian premier, had authorized the abandonment of article 17 even before he had heard of the failure of Antonellis negotiations.
Rudini was glad to leave the whole dispute in abeyance and to make with the local ras, or chieftains, of the high plateau an arrangement securing for Italy the cis-Mareb provinces of Sera and Okul-Kusai under the rule of an allied native chief named Bath-Agos.
Rudini, however, was able to conclude two protocols with Great Britain (March and April 1891) whereby the British government definitely recognized Abyssinia as within the Italian sphere of influence in return for an Italian recognition of British rights in the Upper Nile.
A few days later he was succeeded in the premiership by the marquis di Rudini, leader of the Right, who formed a coalition cabinet with Nicotera and a part of the Left.
His policy Rudini had been characterized by extreme cordiality towards Austria and Germany, by a close understanding with Great Britain in regard to Mediterranean questions, and by an apparent animosity towards France, which at one moment seemed likely to lead to war.
How great had been Crispis power was seen by contrast with the policy of the Rudini cabinet which succeeded him in February 1891.
The premiership &cond of Rudini was hailed by the Radical leader, Cavallotti, renewal of as a pledge of the non-renewal of the triple alliance, thif71T,~tp1~ against which the Radicals began a vociferous campaign.
Their tactics, however, produced a contrary effect, for Rudini, accepting proposals from Berlin, renewed the alliance in June 1891 for a period of twelve years.
The desire of Rudini to live on the best possible terms with all powers was further evinced in the course of a visit paid to Monza by M.
On the I4th of April 1892 dissensions between ministers concerning the financial programme led to a cabinet crisis, and though Rudini succeeded in reconstructing his administration, he was defeated in the Chamber on the 5th of May and obliged to resign.
King Humbert, who, from lack of confidence in Rudini, had declined VIM lull!
Under the arrangement concluded in 1891 by Rudini with native chiefs in regard to the Italo-Abyssinian frontier districts, relations with Abyssinia had remained comparatively satisfactory.
Before Nerazzini could reach Adis Ababa, Rudini, in order partially to satisfy the demands of his Radical supporters for the abandonment of the colony, announced in the Chamber the intention of Italy to limit her occupation to the triangular zone between the points Asmar, Keren and Massawa, and, possibly, to withdraw to Massawa alone.
The fall of the Rudini cabinet in June 1898, however, enabled Signor Ferdinando Martini and Captain Cicco di Cola, who had been appointed respectively civil governor of Eritrea and minister resident at Adis Ababa, to prevent the cession of Sera and OkulKusai, and to secure the assent of Menelek to Italian retention of the Mareb-Belesa-Muna frontier.
While marked in regard to Eritrea by vacillation and undignified readiness to yield to Radical clamour, the policy of the marquis di Rudini was in other respects chiefly characterized I by a desire to demolish Crispi and his supporters.
The home administration of the Rudini cabinet compared unfavourably with that of foreign affairs.
Bound by a secret understanding with the Radical leader Cavallotti, an able but unscrupulous demagogue, Rudini was compelled to bow to Radical exigencies.
But the Rudini-Cavallotti alliance was destined to produce other results than those of the campaign against Crispi.
Pressed by Cavallotti, Rudini in March 1897 dissolved the Chamber and conducted the general election in such a way as to crush by government pressure the partisans of Crispi, and greatly to strengthen the (Socialist, Republican and Radical) revolutionary parties.
More than ever at the mercy of the Radicals and of their revolutionary allies, Rudini continued so to administer public affairs that subversive propaganda and associations obtained unprecedented extension.
View of these occurrences, Rudini authorized the proclamation of a state of siege at Milan, Florence, Leghorn and Naples, delegating the suppression of disorder to special military commissioners.
On the 29th of June Rudini was succeeded in the premiership by General Luigi Pelloux, a Savoyard, whose only title to office was the confidence of the king.
Soon after taking office he completed the negotiations begun by the Rudini administration for a new commercial treaty with France (October 1898), whereby Franco-Italian commercial relations were placed upon a normal footing after a breach which had lasted for more than ten years.
He was minister of war in the Rudini and Giolitti cabinets of 1891-1893.
In July 1896 he resumed the portfolio of war in the Rudini cabinet, and was appointed senator.
Upon the fall of Rudini in June 1898, General Pelloux was entrusted by King Humbert with the formation of a cabinet, and took for himself the post of minister of the interior.
The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken over by him from the Rudini cabinet, and eventually promulgated by royal decree, was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist party, which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in forcing General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, and to resign office after the general election in June.
Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.
Appointed minister of the treasury in the first Di Rudini cabinet of 1891, he imprudently abolished the system of frequent clearings of bank-notes between the state banks, a measure which facilitated the duplication of part of the paper currency and hastened the bank crisis of 1893.
In 1896 he entered the second Di Rudini cabinet as minister of the treasury, and by timely legislation helped to save the bank of Naples from failure.
The ensuing Rudini cabinet lent itself to Cavallotti's campaign, and at the end of 1897 the judicial authorities applied to the chamber for permission to prosecute Crispi for embezzlement.
On the fall of the Rudini cabinet in May 1892, Giolitti, with the help of a court clique, succeeded to the premiership. His term of office was marked by misfortune and misgovernment.
Elected president of the chamber in 1894 and 1896, he exercised that office with ability until, in December 1897, he accepted the portfolio of justice in the Rudini cabinet, only to resign in the following spring on account of dissensions with his colleague, Visconti-Venosta, over the measures necessary to prevent a recurrence of the tumults of May 1898.
During his eleven years' ministry (1876-1878 with Depretis, 1884-1891 with Depretis and Crispi, 1896-1898 with Rudini), he succeeded in creating large private shipyards, engine works and metallurgical works for the production of armour, steel plates and guns.
He died on the 24th of May 1898, while minister of marine in the Rudini cabinet.
In 1882 he was elected to parliament and proved an active worker on committees, speaking frequently and well on foreign and colonial affairs, railway, agricultural, social and fiscal problems. In 1891, as member of the committee of inquiry on Eritrea, he opposed the African policy of both the Crispi and the Rudini Cabinets.
[[Rudini, Antonio Starabba, Marquis Di]] (1839-1908), Italian statesman, was born at Palermo on the 6th of April 1839.
The crisis consequent upon -the disaster of Adowa (1st March 1896) enabled Rudini to return to power as premier and minister of the interior in a cabinet formed by the veteran Conservative, General Ricotti.
In many respects Rudini, though leader of the Right and nominally a Conservative politician, proved a dissolving element in the Italian Conservative ranks.