The rudimentary fifth digit.
Specialized species like Mastodon americanus have completely lost the rudimentary premolars.
In others, as the thylacine, it is rudimentary, being shed or absorbed before any of the other teeth have cut the gum, and therefore functionless.
In addition to this replacement of a single pair of functional teeth in each jaw, it has been discovered that marsupials possess rudimentary tooth-germs which never cut the gum.
In the lower jaw there are also one or two small and early deciduous premolars; third premolars of both jaws formed on the same type as that of the rat-kangaroos, but relatively much larger; molars rudimentary, tubercular.
With the exception of the aberrant long-snouted phalanger, the members of the family Phalangeridae have the normal number of functional incisors, in addition to which there may be one or two rudimentary pairs in the lower jaw.
Inclined forwards; canines, upper small or moderate, conical I or o and sharp-pointed; lower absent or rudimentary; premolars variable; molars 3, or 2 i with four obtuse tubercles, sometimes.
The observation of the existence of structures, in a rudimentary and apparently useless condition, in one species of a group, which are fully developed and have definite functions in other species of the same group.
He defined them as possessing radial instead of bilateral symmetry, and as apparently destitute of nervous system and sense organs, as having the circulatory system rudimentary or absent, and the respiratory organs on or coextensive with the surface of the body; he included under this title and definition five classes, - Echinodermata, Acalepha, Entozoa, Polypi and Infusoria.
The notopodium may be rudimentary or absent and the entire parapodium reduced to the merest ridge or even completely unrepresented.
The air-tubes, like the food-canal, are formed by invaginations of the ectoderm, which arise close to the developing appendages, the rudimentary spiracles appearing soon after the budding limbs.
These monkeys are the African representatives of the Indo-Malay langurs (Semnopithecus), with which they agree in their slender build, long limbs and tail, and complex stomachs, although differing by the rudimentary thumb.
Perhaps the most rudimentary form of snare arose from the spinning of threads round the mouth of the tube to hold it in place.
The fore-limbs have four toes and a rudimentary thumb, all with claws; the hind limbs are larger, with five distinct toes, united by short webs at their bases.
In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."
In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.
The seigniorial taille, like the servile, had the character of a personal tax (taille personelle), a rudimentary tax on income, every man being taxed according to his wages or other income.
Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.
Messrs Spencer and Gillen appear to think that such rudimentary idea of an All-Father as has, it is thought, been detected among the blackfellows is an exotic growth fostered by contact with missionaries.
The basal cell has less chlorophyll than the others, and is expanded and fixed firmly to the rock on which the plant grows by the basal surface, rh, thus forming a rudimentary rhizoid.
The seeds are minute and innumerable; they contain a small rudimentary embryo surrounded by a thin loose membraneous coat, and are scattered by means of hygroscopic hairs on the inside of the valves which by their movements jerk out the seeds.
Rudimentary cteni Fam.
If it should be objected that the wings so developed would be rudimentary, and that there would be nothing to encourage their development into perfect functional organs, we may remind the reader that we have already pointed out that imperfect wings of Exopterygota do, even at the present time under certain conditions, become perfect organs; and we may also add that there are, even among existing Endopterygota, species in which the wings are usually vestiges and yet sometimes become perfectly developed.
Mole-rats are easily recognized by the peculiarly flattened head, in which the minute eyes are covered with skin, the wart-like ears, and rudimentary tail; they make burrows in sandy soil, and feed on bulbs and roots.
No instance has ever been met with of the complete development of the right tusk associated with a rudimentary condition of the left.
- Idrisi (1154) the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type.
With the exception of the first lower premolar, the dentit i on is complete; the incisors being normal, but the canine rudimentary, and the last upper molar distinctly triangular.
According to one theory, these rudimentary teeth, together with the one pair of functional teeth in each jaw that has vertical successors, represent the milk-teeth of placental mammals.
First hind toe rudimentary, clawless or absent; its metatarsal bone always present.
From Australia, where we have the best chance of studying rudimentary religion in some bulk, comes a certain amount of evidence showing that in the two ways just mentioned some inchoate prayer is being evolved.
- A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion.