HARI-RUD, a river of Afghanistan.
The Hari-Rud marks the only important break existing in the continuity of the great central water-parting of Asia.
MESHED (properly Mash-had, " the place of martyrdom"), capital of the province of Khorasan in Persia, situated in a plain watered by the Kashaf-rud (Tortoise river), a tributary of the Hari-rud (river from Herat, which after its junction with the Kashaf is called Tejen), 460 m.
That one is afforded by the narrow valley of the Hari Rud to the west of Herat.
From the Caspian to Karachi it is possible to pass without encountering any orographic obstacle greater than the divide which separates the valley of the Hari Rud from the Helmund hamun basin, which may be represented by an altitude of about 4000 ft.
Between the Hari Rud (the river of Herat) and the Oxus, in which is almost entirely artificial in its construction.
Zulfikar, where the boundary leaves the Hari Rud, is about 70 m.
From the Hari Rud on the Afghan west to the Sarikol mountains on the east her northern limits were set by the Boundary Commissions of 1884 political 1886 and of 1895 respectively.
A, Five specimens of Echinorhynchus acus, Rud., attached to a piece of intestinal wall, X 4.
South of Resht this section is broken through at almost a right angle by the Safid Rud (White river),and along it runs the principal commercial road between the Caspian and inner Persia, Resht-Kazvin-Teheran.
Through or near this gap flow northwards in parallel courses the rivers Heri-rud (Tejend) and Murghab, until they lose themselves in the desert of Kara-kum.
About this time the Tekke Turkomans, then living on the Heri-rud, were forced by the Persians to migrate northward.
Schistostomum (Bilharzia) haematobium in which the male is larger than the female and encloses the latter in a ventral canal; Koellikeria filicolle Rud (Distomum okenii, K01l) which also occurs in pairs, a large female and a small male being found together encysted in the branchial chamber of Brama raja: and Didymozoon thynni (Monostomum bipartitum) which occurs in pairs fused for the greater part of their length and only free anteriorly; the larger individual is the female.
RESHT, the capital of the province of Gilan in Persia, in 37° 17' N., and 49° 36' E., on the left bank of the Siah-rud (Black river), which is a branch of the Sefid-rud (White river), and flows into the Murdab, lagoon of Enzeli.
Reaches to the foot of the Koh-i-Mulla Khwaja, crossing the Jui Nao or " new " canal, which here divides the gravelcovered foot hills from the alluvial flats of the Hari Rud plain.
The long narrow valley of the Hari Rud, starting from the western slopes of the Koh-i-Baba, extends almost due west for 300 m.
On the south of the plateau we find a similar succession of narrow valleys dividing parallel flexures, or anticlinals, formed under similar geological conditions to those which appear to be universally applicable to the Himalaya, the Hindu Kush, and the Indus frontier mountain systems. From one of these long lateral valleys the Hari Rud receives its principal tributary, which joins the main river below Obeh, 180 m.
From its source; and it is this tributary (separated from the Hari Rud by the narrow ridges of the Koh-i-Safed and Band-iBaian) that offers the high road from Herat to Kabul, and not the Hari Rud itself.
From its source to Obeh the Hari Rud is a valley of sandy desolation.
'BOKHARA' (Bokhara-i-Sherif), capital of the state of Bokhara, on the left bank of the Zarafshan, and on the irrigation canal of Shahri-rud, situated in a fertile plain.
And more, and in it are the sources of Persia's most important rivers, as the Zayendeh-rud, Jarahi, Karun, Diz, Abi, Kerkheh.
Other routes there are, open to trade, between Herat and northern India, either following the banks of the Hari Rud, or, more circuitously, through the valley of the Helmund to Kabul; or the line of hills between the Arghandab and the Tarnak may be crossed close to Kalat-i-Ghilzai; but of the two former it may be said that they are not ways open to the passage of Afghan armies owing to the hereditary hostility existing between the Aeimak and Hazara tribes and the Afghans generally, while the latter is not beyond striking distance from Kandahar.
A little east of the Gulf of Enzeli, which resembles the Kara-boghaz, though on a much smaller scale, the Sefid-rud pours into the Caspian the drainage of the western end of the Elburz range, and several smaller streams bring down the precipitation that falls on the northern face of the same range farther to the east.
M., and the Sefid-rud and the Atrek, both relatively short.
The Murghab river and the Hari Rud, which terminate in the oases of Mer y and Sarakhs, almost certainly penetrated to the gulf of the Kara Kum, but the question whether the Oxus was ever deflected so as to enter the gulf with the Murghab cannot be said to be answered decisively at present.
Shiahs predominate on the Persian coast except in the districts of Rud Hilleh, Shibkuh, Lingeh, Bastak, Biyaban, Jask, and on the islands of the Persian Gulf.
BADGHIS ("home of the winds"), a district on the north-west of Afghanistan, between the Murghab and Hari Rud rivers, extending as far northward as the edge of the desert of Sarakhs.
Beginning with the Persian border at Zulfikar on the Hari Rud river, the boundary between Afghanistan and Russia follows a line roughly parallel to the course of the Paropamisus, and about 35 m.
The eastern limits of Hashtadan had been previously fixed as far north as the Hari Rud river at Toman Agha.
From this point to Zulfikar the Hari Rud is itself the boundary.
The geographical divisions of the country are created by the basins of its chief rivers, the Kabul, the Helmund, the Hari Rud and the Oxus.
The Kabul river drains Northern Afghanistan, the Hari Rud the province of Herat, and the Oxus that of Afghan Turkestan.
The dominant mountain system of Afghanistan is the Hindu Kush, and that extension westwards of its water-divide which is indicated by the Koh-i-Baba to the north-west of Kabul, and by the Firozkhoi plateau (Karjistan), which merges still farther to the west by gentle gradients into the Paropamisus, and which may be traced across the Hari Rud to Mashad.
The culminating peaks of the Koh-i-Baba overlooking the sources of the Hari Rud, the Helmund, the Kunduz and the Kabul very nearly reach 17,000 ft.
After the Hindu Kush and the Turkestan mountains, that range which divides Ningrahar (or the valley of Jalalabad) from Kurram and the Afridi Tirah, and is called Safed Koh (also the name of the range south of the Hari Rud), is the most important, as it is the most impressive, in Afghanistan.
Between Kabul and Herat there is no " royal " road, the existing route passing over the frequently snowbound wastes that lie below the southern flank of the great Koh-iBaba into the upper valleys of the Hari Rud tributaries.
The eastern reaches of the Hari Rud river are frozen hard in the winter, rapids and all, and the people travel on it as on a road.
Is formed by the Tejen River (called Han Rud, or river of Herat, in its upper course); it then.
Four rivers belonging essentially to Persia, in reference to the Caspian watershed, are the Seafid Rud or Kizil Uzain on the southwest, the Herhaz on the south and the Gurgan and Atrek at the south-eastern corner of that inland sea.
The Seafid Rud rises in Persian Kurdistan in about 35 50 N.
The Kizil Uzain takes up some important affluents and is called Seafid Rud from the point where it breaks through the Elburz to the sea, a distance of 70 m.
The Herhaz, though not important in length of course or drainage, also, like the Seafid Rud, breaks through the Elburz range from the inner southern scarp to the north.
Rising north of Teheran, the Kend and Kerej rivers, rising nrthwest of Teheran, the Shureh-rud (also called Abhar-rud), rising near Sultanieh on the road between Kazvin and Tabriz, and the Kara-su, which rises near Hamadan and is joined by the Zarinrud (also known as Do-ab), the Reza Chai (also called Mazdakanrud), the Jehrud River and the Kum-rud.
The river of Isfahan, Zendeh-rud, i.e.
Haraiva), in the vicinity of the river Anus (Heri-rud), which derived its name from them.
The former is watered by the Kashaf-rud (Tortoise River), or river of Meshed, flowing east to the Hari-rud, their junction forming the Tejen, which sweeps round the Daman-i-Kuh, or northern skirt of the outer range, towards the Caspian but loses itself in the desert long before reaching it.
By Russia and the Hari Rud river, and on the S.
By the Hindu Kush, the Koh-i-Baba and the northern watershed of the Hari Rud basin.
The chief are the Sardab-rud, Chalus, Herhaz (Lar in its upper course), Babul, Tejen and Nika, and all are well stocked with trout, salmon (azad-mahi), perch (safid-mahi), carp (kupur), bream (subulu), sturgeon (sag-mahi) and other fish, which with rice form the staple food of the inhabitants; the sturgeon supplies the caviare for the Russian market.
The only industrial plants were flax and the dye-plants, chief among which were woad and rud, roid (a kind of bed-straw?).