Within two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidolite and in the Diirkheim mineral water.
Rubidium, caesium, thallium, indium and gallium were first discovered by means of this instrument; the study of the rare earths is greatly facilitated, and the composition of the heavenly bodies alone determinable by it.
Tutton's investigations of the morphotropic effects of the metals potassium, rubidium and caesium, in combination with the acid radicals of sulphuric and selenic acids, showed that the replacement of potassium by rubidium, and this metal in turn by caesium,was accompanied by progressive changes in both physical and crystallographical properties, such that the rubidium salt was always intermediate between the salts of potassium and caesium (see table; the space unit is taken as a pseudo-hexagonal prism).
By taking appropriate differences the following facts will be observed: (1) the replacement of potassium by rubidium occasions an increase in the equivalent volumes by about eight units, and of rubidium by caesium by about eleven units; (2) replacement in the same order is attended by a general increase in the three topic parameters, a greater increase being met with in the replacement of rubidium by caesium; (3) the parameters x and, p are about equally increased, while the increase in w is always the greatest.
They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
The species lepidolite is largely used for the manufacture of lithium and rubidium salts.
It combines with alkaline chlorides - potassium, rubidium and caesium - to form crystalline plumbichlorides; it also forms a crystalline compound with quinoline.
Is the sign of an alkali metal (potassium, sodium, rubidium, caesium), silver or ammonium, and M 111 denotes one of the trivalent metals, aluminium, chromium or ferric iron.
The solubility of the various alums in water varies greatly, sodium alum being readily soluble in water, whilst caesium and rubidium alums are only sparingly soluble.
In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.
News, 1864, 10, p. 181), and, associated with rubidium, at Diirkheim; it is also found in lepidolite, leucite, petalite, triphylline and in the carnallite from Stassfurt.
Bunsen, the best source of rubidium and caesium salts is the residue left after extraction of lithium salts from lepidolite.
The caesium and rubidium are separated from this by repeated fractional crystallization of their double platinum chlorides, which are much less soluble in water than those of the other alkali metals (R.
The platino-chlorides are reduced by hydrogen, and the caesium and rubidium chlorides extracted by water.
Zeit., 1892, 16, p. 335) separate rubidium and caesium from the other alkali metals by converting them into double chlorides with stannic chloride; whilst J.
In order to separate caesium from rubidium, use is made of the different solubilities of their various salts.
Matthiessen, sodium ranks fourth to silver, copper and gold as a conductor of electricity and heat, and according to Bunsen it is the most electropositive metal with the exception of caesium, rubidium and potassium.
Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, and of the alkaline earth metals, viz.
The chlorine is not completely precipitated by silver nitrate in nitric acid solution, the ionization apparently not proceeding to all the chlorine atoms. Thallic iodide, T11 3, is interesting on account of its isomorphism with rubidium and caesium tri-iodides, a resemblance which suggests the formula T11 (12) for the salt, in which the metal is obviously monovalent.
RUBIDIUM [[[symbol]] Rb, atomic weight 85.45 (0= 16)], a metallic element belonging to the group of the alkali metals.
The best source of rubidium salts is the residue left after extracting lithium salts from lepidolite, the method of separation being based on the different solubilities of the platino-chlorides of potassium, rubidium and caesium in water (R.
The rubidium salts are generally colourless, mostly soluble in water and isomorphous with the corresponding potassium salts.
Rubidium hydride, RbH, was obtained in the form of colourless needles by H.
Rubidium hydroxide, RbOH, is a colourless solid which is formed by the action of rubidium on water, or by the addition of baryta water to a solution of rubidium sulphate.
Rubidium chloride, RbC1, is formed on burning rubidium in chlorine, or on dissolving the hydroxide in aqueous hydrochloric acid.
Sci., 18 9 1 (3), 43, P. 475); Rubidium sulphate, Rb2S04, is formed by the action of sulphuric acid on the carbonate or hydroxide of the metal, or by the action of milk of lime on rubidium alum, the excess of lime being precipitated by rubidium carbonate and the solution neutralized by sulphuric acid.
Rubidium nitrate, RbNO 3, obtained by the action of nitric acid on the carbonate, crystallizes in needles or prisms and when strongly heated is transformed into a mixture of nitrite and oxide.
Rubidium ammonium, RbNH 31 was prepared by H.
The product combines with acetylene to form rubidium acetylide acetylene, Rb2C2 C2H2, which on heating in vacuo loses acetylene and leaves a residue of rubidium carbide Rb2C2 (ibid.
Rubidium carbonate, Rb2C03, formed by the addition of ammonium carbonate to rubidium hydroxide, is a crystalline mass which melts in its water of crystallization when heated.
The atomic weight of rubidium was determined by R.
Chem., 1862, 1, p. 519) and Godeffroy (Ann., 1876, 181, p. 185), the methods being based on the conversion of rubidium halides into the corresponding silver salt, and the values obtained vary from 85.40 to 85.50.
The salts of the acid are known as the perchlorates, and are all soluble in water; the potassium and rubidium salts, however, are only soluble to a slight extent.