The Moroccan system was visited, and in some instances crossed, by various European travellers carried into slavery by the Salli rovers, and was traversed by Rene Caille in 1828 on his journey home from Timbuktu, but the first detailed exploration was made by Gerhard Rohlfs in 1861-1862.
After the departure of the Romans the walls became ruinous or were partly pulled down, perhaps by sea rovers from the north.
The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.
BARBAROSSA ("Redbeard"), the name given by the Christians to a family of Turkish admirals and sea rovers of the 16th century, - Arouj and Khizr (alias Khair-ed-Din) and Hassan the son of Khair-ed-Din.
In the 10th and 11th centuries Norse sea-rovers, starting from Iceland, had made small settlements in Greenland and had pushed as far as the coast of New England (or possibly Nova Scotia) in transient visits (see Vinland and Leif Ericsson).
The Greeks of the islands had been accustomed from time immemorial to seafaring; their ships - some as large as frigates - were well armed, to guard against the Barbary pirates and rovers of their own kin; lastly, they had furnished the bulk of the sailors to the Ottoman navy which, now that this recruiting ground was closed, had to be manned hastily with impressed crews of dock-labourers and peasants, many of whom had never seen the sea.
The island of Columba was occasionally plundered by English and other rovers, but in the 16th century it became the property of Sir James Stuart, whose grandson became 2nd earl of Murray by virtue of his marriage to the elder daughter of the 1st earl.
We may put out of the question the Scandinavian sea-rovers who sailed to Greenland about the 10th century.
War, declared before England had gained the naval experience and wealth of the next fifteen years, and before Spain had been weakened by the struggle in the Netherlands and the depredations of the sea-rovers, would have been a desperate expedient; and the ideas that any action on Elizabeth's part could have made France Huguenot, or prevented the disruption of the Netherlands, may be dismissed as the idle dreams of Protestant enthusiasts.
Norse pirates having made the islands the headquarters of their buccaneering expeditions indifferently against their own Norway and the coasts and isles of Scotland; Harold Haarfager ("Fair Hair") subdued the rovers in 875 and both the Orkneys and Shetlands to Norway.
Here also lived King Radbod, a pagan, and on this isle St Willibrord in the 7th century first preached Christianity; and for its ownership, before and after that date, many sea-rovers have fought.
The river, being fairly deep inside the bar, made this a favourite port for the Salli rovers to winter in, but the quantity of alluvial soil brought down threatens to close the port.
Probably they were all sea-rovers from the shores and islands of the Mediterranean, who were willing to leave their ships and join the Libyans in raids on the rich lands of Egypt.
The rovers who first chastened and finally colonized southern England and Normandy were certainly Danes.
In this tradition there is a reminiscence of the fact that the Lycians had been sea-rovers before their settlement in Lycia.
761), was victorious while in his prime, and then consolidated Pictland; but (802-83'9) the Scandinavian sea-rovers began to hold large territories in Scotland,weakened the Picts, and made easy their conquest by Kenneth MacAlpine of Kintyre, the king of the Dalriad Scots of Argyll.
Lastly, I confess that I have as vast contemplative ends as I have moderate civil ends; for I have taken all knowledge to be my province; and if I could purge it of two sorts of rovers, whereof the one with frivolous disputations, confutations and verbosities, the other with blind experiments and auricular traditions and impostures, hath committed so many spoils, I hope I should bring in industrious observations, grounded conclusions and profitable inventions and discoveries - the best state of that province.
Secondly, within the domain of science itself, properly so called, there were two " kind of rovers " who must be dismissed.