The minority, among whom were prominent Ca" "pals Rauscher and Schwarzenberg, Hefele, bishop of Rotterdam (the historian of the councils) Cardinal Mathieu, Mgr Dupanloup, Mgr Maret, &c., &c., did not pretend to deny the papal infallibility; they pleaded the inopportuneness of the definition and brought forward difficulties mainly of an historical order, in particular the famous condemn ion of Pope Honorius by the 6th ecumenical council of Const: ntinople in 680.
In 1839 he was appointed consul at Rotterdam, and in the following year transferred to Malaga, the place of origin of his mother's family.
Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.
A second large Dutch fleet sailed in 1598; and, so eager was the republic to extend her commerce over the world that another fleet, consisting of five ships of Rotterdam, was sent in the same year by way of Magellan's Strait, under Jacob Mahu as admiral, with William Adams as pilot.
He was furnished with four ships of Amsterdam, two of Rotterdam and one from Zeeland.
Harwich is one of the principal English ports for continental passenger traffic, steamers regularly serving the Hook of Holland, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Esbjerg, Copenhagen and Hamburg.
(3 vols., Rotterdam, 1846-1848); O.
He refused calls to churches in Dublin and Rotterdam, and in 1766 declined an invitation brought him by Richard Stockton to go to America as president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University); but he accepted a second invitation and left Paisley in May 1768.
Oranje in zijn leven en verdiensten (4 vols., Rotterdam, 1843); M.
The Hook (Hoek) of Holland harbour, built at the mouth of the New Waterway (1866-1872) from Rotterdam, is the chief approach to Central Europe from Harwich on the east coast of England.
Flourishing centres of industry are found along the numerous river arms, including Maasluis, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Rotterdam, Gorinchem, and Dordrecht.
's Hertogenbosch is the market of the fertile Meiery district, and carries on a considerable trade, chiefly by water, with Dordrecht and Rotterdam, Nijmwegen, Amhem, Maastricht and Liege.
He died in exile at Rotterdam on the 28th of December 1706.
It has daily steamboat connexion with Rotterdam by the Voornsche canal.
From Amsterdam he walked through Rotterdam to Antwerp, took a boat to Brussels, and on foot again reached Paris.
Penning, De Oorlog in Zuid-Afrika (Rotterdam, 1899-1903); G.
These are not the only ports on the river; a large trade is also done at Kehl, Maxau (for Karlsruhe), Ludwigshafen, Mainz, Bonn, Rotterdam and a host of smaller places.
From Rotterdam to the German frontier, and To ft.
There is regular steamer communication with London, Christiania, Hamburg, Rotterdam and Amsterdam.
In winter-time it is considered a feat to skate hither from Rotterdam and elsewhere to buy such a pipe and return with it in one's mouth without its being broken.
Nearly all of the preceding were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, although out of place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood.
Lord Ashley now retired into Holland, where he became acquainted with Le Clerc, Bayle, Benjamin Furly, the English Quaker merchant, at whose house Locke had resided during his stay at Rotterdam, and probably Limborch and the rest of the literary circle of which Locke had been a cherished and honoured member nine or ten years before.
Other proteges were Crell, a young Pole, the two young Furlys and Harry Wilkinson, a boy who was sent into Furly's office at Rotterdam, and to whom several of the letters still extant in the Record Office are addressed.
His principal work is a laborious Lexicon Rationale, sive Thesaurus Philosophicus (Rotterdam, 1692; new and enlarged edition, Leuwarden, 1713).
In enemy countries, it is true, his enterprises were sequestrated, and his firm at Rotterdam placed on the Allies' " black list."
In the 15th century it was the seat of a celebrated academy, founded by the humanist Rodolphus Agricola, which contributed not a little to the revival of learning in this part of Germany; Erasmus of Rotterdam was one of its students.
The garden at Rotterdam is also of high interest.
It rose into importance as a fishing harbour towards the end of the 16th century, and its prosperity rapidly increased after the opening of the New Waterway (the Maas ship canal) from Rotterdam to the sea.
Here he wrote his Neue Apologie des Socrates (1772), a work occasioned by an attack on the fifteenth chapter of Marmontel's Belisarius made by Peter Hofstede, a clergyman of Rotterdam, who maintained the patristic view that the virtues of the noblest pagans were only splendida peccata.
Newport News is served by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, of which it is a terminus; by river boats to Richmond and Petersburg, Va.; by coastwise steamship lines to Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Boston and Providence; by foreign steamship lines to London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Dublin, Belfast, Rotterdam, Hamburg and other ports; and by electric lines to Old Point Comfort, Norfolk and Portsmouth.
On the suppression of the academy of Sedan in 1681, Jurieu received an invitation to a church at Rouen, but, afraid to remain in France on account of his forthcoming work, La Politique du clerge de France, he went to Holland and was pastor of the Walloon church of Rotterdam till his death on the 11th of January 1713.
One of Jurieu's chief works is Lettres pastorales adressees aux fideles de France (3 vols., Rotterdam, 1686-1687; Eng.
ROTTERDAM, a city of Holland in the province of South Holland, on both banks of the New Maas, at the confluence of the canalized Rotte, and a junction station 14z m.
Its shipping facilities have raised Rotterdam to the position of the first commercial city of Holland.
Although originally situated exclusively on the north or right bank of the Maas, in 1869 Rotterdam was extended to the southern shore by the acquisition of the commune of Feienoord; while in 1886 Delftshaven on the west, and in 1895 Charlois on the south-west and Kralingen on the east, were also incorporated.
Behind the exchange is the great market-place, built on vaulting over a canal, and containing a bronze statue of Erasmus, who was born in Rotterdam in 1467.
Among the churches of Rotterdam are an English church, originally built by the 1st duke of Marlborough, whose arms may be seen with the royal arms over the entrance.
It is, however, as a commercial rather than as a manufacturing city that Rotterdam is distinguished, its progress in this respect having been very striking.
Besides its maritime trade Rotterdam has an extensive river traffic, not only with Holland, but also with Belgium and Germany.
The larger passenger steamers of the Rotterdamsche Lloyd to Netherlands India and of the Holland-American Steamship Company (the two principal passenger and cargo steamship companies at Rotterdam) have their berths on the south side of the river.
The increase in the importance of Rotterdam as a port, apart from the development of the trade of the Netherlands generally, is shown by the fact that whereas in 1846 only 31% of the total trade of the country passed through the port, in 1883 the proportion was 50%; in the same year 43-75% of the total number of vessels engaged in Dutch trade used the port of Rotterdam, whereas in 1850 the proportion was only 35.77%.
Rotterdam probably owes its existence to two castles, which existed in feudal times.
In 1299 John I., count of Holland, granted to the people of Rotterdam the same rights as were enjoyed by the burghers of Beverwijk, which were identical with those of Haarlem (K.
In this way the towns of Rotterdam, Schiedam, Vlaardingen and Maasluis have all gradually extended over the Maas dike in order to keep in touch with the river, and the small town of Delftshaven is built altogether on the outer side of the same dike.
The largest towns are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, Utrecht, Groningen, Haarlem, Arnhem, Leiden, Nijmwegen, Tilburg.
The large ship canals to Rotterdam and Amsterdam, called the New Waterway and the North Sea canal respectively, were constructed in 1866-1872 and 1865-1876 at a cost of 21 and 3 million pounds sterling, the former by widening the channel of the Scheur north of Rozenburg, and cutting across the Hook of Holland, the latter by utilizing the bed of the Y and cutting through the dunes at Ymuiden.
The two longitudinal lines are the railway den Helder via Haarlem (1862-1867), 1 Rotterdam (1839-1847), and Zwaluwe (1869-1877) to Antwerp (1852-1855), belonging to the Holland railway company, and the State railway from Leeuwarden and Groningen (1870) (junction at Meppel, 1867) Zwolle (1866) - Arnhem (1865)- Nijmwegen (1879) - Venlo (1883) - Maastricht (1865).
The four transverse lines belong to the State and Holland railways alternately and are, beginning with the State railway: (1) the line Flushing (1872) - Rozendaal (1860) - Tilburg (1863) - Bokstel (whence there is a branch line belonging to the North Brabant and Germany railway company via Vechel to Goch in Germany, opened in 1873) - Eindhoven - Venlo and across Prussian border (1866); (2) the line Hook of Holland - Rotterdam (1893) - Dordrecht (1872-1877) - Elst (1882-1885) - Nijmwegen (1879) - Cleves, Germany (1865); (3) the line Rotterdam - Utrecht (1866-1869) and Amsterdam - Utrecht - Arnhem (1843-1845) to Emmerich in Germany (1856): this line formerly belonged to the Netherlands-Rhine railway company, but was bought by the state in 1890; and finally (4) the line Amsterdam - Hilversum - Amersfoort - Apeldoorn (1875), whence it is continued (a) via Deventer, Almelo and Hengelo to Salzbergen, Germany (1865); (b) via Zutphen, Hengelo (1865), Enschede (1866) to Gronau, Germany; (c) via Zutphen (1876) and Ruurlo to Winterswyk (1878).
The state first began to encourage the construction of these local light railways by means of subsidies in 1893, since when some of the most prominent lines have come into exist ence, such as Purmerend - Alkmaar (1898), Zutphen - Emmerich (1902), along the Dedemsyaart in Overysel (1902), from 's Hertogenbosch via Utrecht and Eindhoven to Turnhout in Belgium (1898), and especially those connecting the South Holland and Zeeland islands with the railway, namely, between Rotterdam and Numansdorp on the Hollandsch Diep (1898), and from Breda or Bergen-op-Zoom, via Steenbergen to St Philipsland, Zierikzee and Brouwershaven (1900).
Other branches of industry include carpet-weaving at Deventer, the distillation of brandy, gin and liqueurs at Schiedam, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and beer-brewing in most of the principal towns; shoe-making and leather-tanning in the Langstraat district of North Brabant; paper-making at Apeldoorn, on the Zaan, and in Limburg; the manufacture of earthenware and faience at Maastricht, the Hague and Delft, as well as at Utrecht, Purmerend and Makkum; clay pipes and stearine candles at Gouda; margarine at Osch; chocolate at Weesp and on the Zaan; mat-plaiting and broom-making at Genemuiden and Blokzyl; diamondcutting and the manufacture of quinine at Amsterdam; and the making of cigars and snuff at Eindhoven, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Kampen, &c. Shipbuilding is of no small importance in Holland, not only in the greater, but also in the smaller towns along the rivers and canals.
The principal shipbuilding yards are at Amsterdam, Kinderdijk, Rotterdam and at Flushing, where there is a government dockyard for building warships.
A great part of the commercial business at Rotterdam belongs to the commission and transit trade.
The number of members is loo, Amsterdam returning 9, Rotterdam 5, the Hague 3, Groningen and Utrecht 2 members each.
There are congregations of English Episcopalians at the Hague, Amsterdam and Rotterdam, and German Evangelicals at the Hague (1857) and Rotterdam (1861).
Two devoted adherents of William of Orange, Paul Buys, advocate of Holland, and Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, pensionary of Rotterdam, were the statesmen who at this difficult juncture took the foremost part in directing the policy of the confederacy.
He was born at Rotterdam on the 9th of April 1649.
Passenger steamship services are worked in connexion with the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway to Amsterdam, Antwerp, Bruges, Copenhagen, Rotterdam and other north European ports.
Spanheim, Gangraena theologiae Anabaptisticae (Franekerd, 1656); Balthasar Lydius, Waldensia, id est conservatio verae Ecclesiae (Rotterdam, 1616); Herman Schyn, Historiae Mennonitarum (Amsterdam, 1729); Joh.
He settled at Rotterdam as a minister pensionary till 1691, when he was chosen pastor of the Walloon church.
Of these may be mentioned Histoire de la religion des eglises reformees (Rotterdam, 1690), the Histoire de l'eglise depuis Jesus-Christ jusqu'd present (ib.
1699) - both of them written from the point of view of Protestant polemics - and, of greater scientific value, the Histoire des Juifs (Rotterdam, 1706, Eng.