The rotation of the earth thus fixes the directions of north and south and defines those of east and west.
Under hay are included the produce of clover, sainfoin and rotation grasses, and also that of permanent meadow.
The opportunities which rotation cropping affords for the cleaning of the land from weeds is another distinct element of advantage.
The hay made from clover, sainfoin and grasses under rotation generally gives a bigger average yield than that from permanent grass land.
Such rotation can obviously be controlled within limits that need not be further considered.
The metropolitan of Athens is president, and there are four other members appointed by the government in annual rotation from the senior bishops.
The greater freedom of cropping and the less close adherence to the formal system of rotation of crops, which characterize the early years of the 10th century, rest upon a scientific basis.
Of potash, each of the rotation crops takes up very much more than of phosphoric acid.
In the rotation of crops there is an amazing diversityshifts of two years, three years, four years, six years, and in many cases whatever order strikes the fancy of the farmer.
The rotation of the planets on their axes is also explained as a consequence of the nebular theory, for at the time of the first formation of the planet it must have participated in the rotation of the whole nebula, and by the subsequent contraction of the planet the speed with which the rotation was performed must have been accelerated.
Repetition of one crop in the field exhausts the ground; but rotation of the crops is good for the soil.
Under the old Norfolk or four-course rotation (roots, barley, clover, wheat) land thus seeded with clover or grass seeds was intended to be ploughed up at the end of a year.
Thus the cereal crops, when grown in rotation, yield more produce for sale in the season of growth than when grown continuously.
Although many different rotations of crops are practised, they may for the most part be considered as little more than local adaptations of the system of alternating root-crops and leguminous crops with cereal crops, as exemplified in the old four-course rotation - roots, barley, clover, wheat.
But much less potash than phosphoric acid is exported in the cereal grains, much more being retained in the straw, whilst the other products of the rotation - the root and leguminous crops - which are also supposed to be retained on the farm, contain very much more potash than the cereals, and comparatively little of it is exported in meat and milk.
Very little of the lime of the crops, however, goes off in the saleable products of the farm in the case of the self-supporting rotation under consideration.
Thus the smallest rotation of either head communicates to the corresponding slide motion, which, if the screws are accurate, is proportional to the amount through which the head is turned.
He also carried out many experiments in magneto-optics, and succeeded in showing, what Faraday had failed to detect, the rotation under the influence of magnetic force of the plane of polarization in certain gases and vapours.
Already anxieties appear as to the theological verdict upon two of his fundamental views - the infinitude of the universe, and the earth's rotation round the sun.
The cups are placed symmetrically on the end of the arms, and it is easy to see that the wind always has the hollow of one cup presented to it; the back of the cup on the opposite end of the cross also faces the wind, but the pressure on it is naturally less, and hence a continual rotation is produced; each cup in turn as it comes round providing the necessary force.
This cone is driven by gearing from the wire drum, so that it rotates at the speed of the outgoing wire, the direction of rotation being such as to cause the nut to travel towards the smaller end of the cone.
The instrument consists of two cams, the form of which regulates the components of the curbed signal, one cam being for the dot element and the other for the dash element, which by their sequence give the letter signals; these cams, by means of clutches controlled by the relay, are mechanically rotated by clockwork, the speed of rotation being approximately adjusted to the rate of transmission of a single element, so that the requisite number of consecutive elements is transmitted corresponding to the duration of contact of the relay arm with the side controlling that particular element.
The diurnal rotation of the earth furnishes two fixed points or poles, the axis joining which is fixed or nearly so in its direction in space.
Another important consequence of rotation is the deviation produced in moving bodies relatively to the surface.
In the form known as Ferrell's Law this runs: " If a body moves in any direction on the earth's surface, there is a deflecting force which arises from the earth's rotation which tends to deflect it to the right in the northern hemisphere but to the left in the southern hemisphere."
A similar rotation and dislocation occurs in various petrels, in correlation with the indigestible sepia-bills, &c., which these birds swallow in great quantities.
In whatever form energy is produced and distributed to the train it ultimately appears as mechanical energy applied to turn one or more axles against the resistance to their rotation imposed by the weight on the wheels and the motion of the train.
This gigantic nebulous mass, of which the sun was only the central and somewhat more condensed portion, is supposed to have a movement of rotation on its axis.
In fact a little consideration of the theory of probabilities will show it to be infinitely probable that such an object should really have some movement of rotation, no matter by what causes the nebula may have originated.
Whilst much grass land has been laid down with the intention from the outset that it should be permanent, at the same time some considerable areas have through stress of circumstances been allowed to drift from the temporary or rotation grass area to the permanent list, and have thus still further diminished the area formerly under the dominion of the plough.
Wheat 26ï¿½08 bushels, barley 2 9.3 o bushels, oats 38.14 bushels, beans 19.61 bushels, rotation hay 23.55 cwt., permanent hay 20.41 cwt.
In the case of plants the method of procedure was to grow some of the most important crops of rotation, each separately year after year, for many years in succession on the same land, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with a great variety of chemical manures; the same description of manure being, as a rule, applied year after year on the same plot.
Experiments on an actual course of rotation, without manure, and with different manures, have also been made.
But the average produce over forty years of continuous growth of barley was, in all cases where nitrogenous and mineral manures (containing phosphates) were used together, much higher than the average produce of the crop grown in ordinary rotation in the United Kingdom, and very much higher than the average in most other countries when so grown.
Remarkable as Hellriegel's discovery was, it merely furnished the explanation of a fact which had been empirically established by the husbandman long before, and had received most intelligent application when the old four-course (or Norfolk) rotation was devised.
Whatever the specific rotation, there may in practice be deviations from the plan of retaining on the farm the whole of the root-crops, the straw of the grain crops and the leguminous fodder crops (clover, vetches, sainfoin, &c.) for the production of meat or milk, and, coincidently, for that of manure to be returned to the land.
The benefits that accrue from the practice of rotation are well illustrated in the results obtained from the investigations at Rothamsted into the simple four-course system, which may fairly be regarded as a self-supporting system.
Of lime, very little is taken up by the cereal crops, and by the root-crops much less than of potash; more by the leguminous than by the other crops, and, by the clover especially, sometimes much more than by all the other crops of the rotation put together.
It is the leguminous fodder crops-especially clover, which has a much more extended period of growth, and much wider range of collection within the soil and subsoil, than any of the other crops of the rotation-that yield in their produce the largest amount of nitrogen per acre.
Cereal pests can only be treated by general cleanliness and good farming, and of course they are largely kept down by the rotation of crops.
Of phosphoric acid, the cereal crops take up as much as, or more than, any other crops of the rotation, excepting clover; and the greater portion thus taken up is lost to the farm in the saleable product - the grain.
Thus the whole of the crops of rotation take up very much more of potash than of phosphoric acid, whilst probably even less of it is ultimately lost to the land.