ROSKILDE, or Roeskilde, a town of Denmark in the amt (county) of Kjobenhavn (Copenhagen), 20 m.
Of Copenhagen, on the great lagoon-like inlet named Roskilde Fjord.
At once sued for peace; and, yielding to the persuasions of the English and French ministers, Charles finally agreed to be content with mutilating instead of annihilating the Danish monarchy (treaties of Taastrup, February 18th, and of Roskilde, February 26th, 1658).
On the death of King Eric Lam in 1147 Valdemar came forward as one of the three pretenders to the Danish crown, Jutland falling to his portion (compact of Roskilde, 9th of August 1157).
He was the sole male survivor of the ancient royal line; his valour and ability were universally recognized, and in Absalon, elected bishop of Roskilde in 1158, he possessed a minister of equal genius and patriotism.
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Another son, Erasmus (1625-1698), born at Roskilde, spent ten years in visiting England, Holland, Germany and Italy, and filled the chairs of mathematics and medicine at Copenhagen.
In 1349, at the Landsting of Ringsted, Valdemar proudly rendered an account of his stewardship to the Estates of Zealand, and the bishop of Roskilde congratulated him on having so miraculously delivered his people from foreign thraldom.
Absalon first appears in Saxo's Chronicle as a fellow-guest at Roskilde, at the banquet given, in 1157, by King Sweyn to his rivals Canute and Valdemar.
In 1182, an imperial ambassador arrived at Roskilde to receive the homage of the new king, Absalon resolutely withstood him.
Presented that part of the island to Axel Hvide, renowned in Danish history as Absalon, bishop of Roskilde, and afterwards archbishop of Lund.
In 1186, Bishop Absalon bestowed the castle and village, with the lands of Amager, on the see of Roskilde; but, as the place grew in importance, the Danish kings became anxious to regain it, and in 1245 King Eric IV.
Various attempts were made by successive kings to obtain the town from the see of Roskilde, as the most suitable for the royal residence; but it was not till 1443 that the transference was finally effected and Copenhagen became the capital of the kingdom.
(extremes), with its fantastic coast-line indented by fjords and projecting into long spits or promontories, may be considered as the nucleus of the kingdom, inasmuch as it contains the capital, Copenhagen, and such important towns as Roskilde, Slagelse, Korsor, Naestved and Elsinore (Helsingor).
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From the frontier a line runs east by Fredericia, across the island of Flinen by Odense and Nyborg, to Korsiir on Zealand, and thence by Roskilde to Copenhagen.
The extraordinary details of this dramatic struggle will be found elsewhere (see FREDERICK III., king of Denmark, and Charles X., king of Sweden); suffice it to say that by the peace of Roskilde (February 26, 1658), Denmark consented to cede the three Scanian provinces, the island of Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Baahus and Trondhjem; to renounce all anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish [[Viii.
The coast is indented by numerous deep bays and fjords; the Ise Fjord in the north, with its branches the Roskilde Fjord on the east and the Lamme Fjord on the west, penetrates inland for about 25 m.
The only other town of importance is the old cathedral city of Roskilde on the fjord of that name.
The Danish king Hrothgar and his brother Halga, the sons of Healfdene, appear in the Historia Danica of Saxo as Roe (the founder of Roskilde) and Helgo, the sons of Haldanus.
The differences between the two states were finally adjusted by the peace of Copenhagen (May 27, 1660), Denmark ceding the three Scanian provinces to Sweden but receiving back the Norwegian province of Trondhjem and the isle of Bornholm which she had surrendered by the peace of Roskilde two years previously.
In 1645 the Swedes took it by storm, and their possession of it was confirmed by the peace of Roskilde in 1658; but the sympathies of the people were with Denmark, and a popular insurrection succeeded in expelling the Swedish forces, the island coming finally into the possession of Denmark in 1660.