Of the five fairs which are now held three are ancient, that now held on the 29th of April being granted to Marmaduke de Tweng and William de Rosin 1307, and those on the 8th and 9th of November to Christiana, widow of Ingelram de Gynes, in 1333 See Victoria County History, Westmorland; Cornelius Nicholson, The Annals of Kendal (1861).
Mixture of gutta-percha, rosin and Stockholm tar).
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
The manufacture of turpentine and rosin, material for which is obtained from the pine forests, had increased greatly in importance between 1890 and 1900, the product in 1890 being valued at only $191,859, that of 1900 at $6,469,605, and from the latter sum it increased in 1905 to $9,901,905, an increase of more than one-half.
In some localities, especially in the " Florida parishes," small quantities of rosin and turpentine are taken from the long-leaf pine, but this industry was unimportant in Louisiana before 1908.
Rosin, Souveranitatstaat (1883); K.
The value of the turpentine and rosin products in 1905 was $2,434,365.
The yellow pines of the southern part of the state, which have a stand of approximately 1 3,77 8, 000 ft., yielded in 1900 rosin and turpentine valued at $8,110,468 (more than the product of any other state in the Union) and in 1905 valued at $7,705,643 (second only to the product of Florida).
Henry Cavendish had before 1773 discovered that glass, wax, rosin and shellac have higher specific inductive capacities than air, and had actually determined the numerical ratios of these capacities, but this was unknown both to Faraday and to all other electricians of his time, since Cavendish's Electrical Researches remained unpublished till 1879.
Rape oil is the subject of extensive adulteration, principally with the cheaper hemp oil, rosin oil and mineral oils.
These sophistications can be most conveniently detected, first by taste and next by saponification, rosin oil and mineral oil remaining unsaponified, hemp oil giving a greenish soap, while rape oil yields a soap with a yellow tinge.
A cement for Derbyshire spar and china, &c., is composed of 7 parts of rosin and i of wax, with a little plaster of Paris; a small quantity only should be applied to the surfaces to be united, for, as a general rule, the thinner the stratum of a cement, the more powerful its action.
Cutler's cement, used for fixing knife-blades in their hafts, is made of equal parts of brick-dust and melted rosin, or of 4 parts of rosin with i each of beeswax and brick-dust.
For covering bottle-corks a mixture of pitch, brick-dust and rosin is employed.
Gold and silver chasers keep their work firm by means of a cement of pitch and rosin, a little tallow, and brick-dust to thicken.
Temporary cement for lathe-work, such as the polishing and grinding of jewelry and optical glasses, is compounded thus: - rosin, 4 oz.; whitening previously made redhot, 4 oz.; wax, 4 oz.
Linseed oil is subject to various falsifications, chiefly through the addition of cotton-seed, niger-seed and hemp-seed oils; and rosin oil and mineral oils also are not infrequently added.
In subsequent receipts saltpetre and turpentine make their appearance, and the modern "carcass composition," containing sulphur, tallow, rosin, turpentine, saltpetre and crude antimony, is a representative of the same class of mixtures, which became known to the Crusaders as Greek fire but were more usually called wildfire.
ROSIN (a later variant of "resin," q.v.) or Colophony (Colophonia resina, resin from Colophon in Lydia), the resinous constituent of the oleo-resin exuded by various species of pine, known in commerce as crude turpentine.
The separation of the oleo-resin into the essential oil-spirit of turpentine and common rosin is effected by distillation in large copper stills.
The essential oil is carried off at a heat of between 212° and 316° F., leaving fluid rosin, which is run off through a tap at the bottom of the still, and purified by passing through a straining wadding.
Rosin varies in colour, according to the age of the tree whence the turpentine is drawn and the amount of heat applied in distillation, from an opaque almost pitchy black substance through grades of brown and yellow to an almost perfectly transparent colourless glassy mass.
Rosin is a brittle and friable resin, with a faint piny odour; the melting-point varies with different specimens, some being semi-fluid at the temperature of boiling water, while others do not melt till 220 or 250° F.
Rosin consists mainly of abietic acid, and combines with caustic alkalis to form salts (rosinates or pinates) that are known as "rosin soaps."
In addition to its extensive use in soap-making, rosin is largely employed in making inferior varnishes, sealing-wax and various cements.
On a large scale it is treated by destructive distillation for the production of rosin spirit, pinoline and rosin oil.
The chief region of rosin production is the South Atlantic and Eastern Gulf states of the United States.
American rosin is obtained from the turpentine of the swamp pine, Pinus australis, and of the loblolly pine, P. Taeda.
In the north of Europe rosin is obtained from the Scotch fir, P. sylvestris, and throughout European countries local supplies are obtained from other species of pine.