A couple of hundred years later, we see the Romans doing crop rotation.
AURUNCI, the name given by the Romans to a tribe which in historical times occupied only a strip of coast on either side of the Mons Massicus between the Volturnus and the Liris, although it must at an earlier period have extended over a considerably wider area.
After the defeat of the Romans by Pyrrhus at Heraclea (280), Fabricius was sent to treat for the ransom and exchange of the prisoners.
As "allies" of the Romans the Nabataeans continued to flourish throughout the first Christian century.
In the First Punic War, however, it was sacked by the Romans (261) and the Carthaginians (255), and finally in the Second Punic War by the Romans (210).
There are signs of trade with Etruria as early as the 7th century B.C. The Carthaginians made it into an important grainproducing centre; and the Romans set foot in the island more than once during the First Punic War.
In 238 B.C. the Carthaginian mercenaries revolted, and the Romans took advantage of the fact to demand that the island should be given period.
The native tribes opposed the Romans, but were conquered after several campaigns; 8 the island became a province under the government of a praetor or propraetor, to whose jurisdiction Corsica was added soon afterwards.
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
He attempted in vain to secure the election of his grandson Charles.
"The Romans," writes Dr Hamilton, "were probably the original introducers of this cat, and as the final evacuation of Britain by that nation took place under the emperor Valentinian about A.D.
Bank by the Romans; it is now about one mile inland.
It was captured in 191 by the Romans, but restored to the Aetolian League until 146.
It was one of the oldest cities of Etruria, but does not appear in history till the Roman colonization of 247 B.C., and was never of great importance, except as a resort of wealthy Romans, many of whom (Pompey, the Antonine emperors) had villas there.
Amongst the Romans, private hospitality, which had existed from the earliest times, was more accurately and legally defined than amongst the Greeks.
In the time of the Romans Rustchuk was one of the fortified points along the line of the Danube.
Unger (Christiania, 1848); Li Romans d'Alixandre, by H.
He had long hated the Romans, who had taken Phrygia during his minority, and he aimed at driving them from Asia Minor.
He rapidly overran Galatia, Phrygia and Asia, defeated the Roman armies, and ordered a general massacre of the Romans in Asia.
The former established himself in 64 at Panticapaeum, and was planning new campaigns against the Romans when his own troops revolted, and, after vainly trying to poison himself, he ordered a Gallic mercenary to kill him.
SIBYLS 1 (Sibyllae), the name given by the Greeks and Romans to certain women who prophesied under the inspiration of a deity.
Animals, hitherto unknown to the Romans, were exhibited in the circus, and an artificial lake (eunipus) was made for the reception of crocodiles and hippopotamuses.
Avranches, an important military station of the Romans, was in the middle ages chief place of a county of the duchy of Normandy.
In 108 he vacillated between Jugurtha and the Romans, and joined Jugurtha only on his promising him the third part of his kingdom.
Bocchus again made overtures to the Romans, and after an interview with Sulla, who was Marius's quaestor at that time, sent ambassadors to Rome.
Bocchus concluded a treaty with the Romans, and a portion of Numidia was added to his kingdom.
Further to conciliate the Romans and especially Sulla,he sent to the Capitol a group of Victories guarding a device in gold showing Bocchus handing over Jugurtha to Sulla.
The wall of Herod Agrippa was planned on a grand scale, but its execution was stopped by the Romans, so that it was not completed at the time of the siege of Jerusalem by Titus.
The Romans knew as little about Istakhr as the Greeks had done about Persepolis - and this in spite of the fact that for four hundred years the Sassanians maintained relations, friendly or hostile, with the empire.
Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
In accordance with their settled policy the Rhodians eagerly supported the Romans when these made war upon Philip V.
Tiridates, who was proclaimed king, could no longer maintain himself, because he appeared to be a vassal of the Romans; Artabanus returned from Hyrcania with a strong army of Scythian (Dahan) auxiliaries, and was again acknowledged by the Parthians.
Being detected, he fled in order to escape punishment, but returned when Athenion (or Aristion), a bitter opponent of the Romans, had made himself tyrant of the city with the aid of Mithradates.
He was surprised by the Romans under the command of Orobius (or Orbius), and only saved his life by flight.
Should peacefully re-enter the Vatican and the independence of the Romans be assured at the same time.
The Netherlands first became known to the Romans through the campaigns of Julius Caesar.
At first success attended Civilis and the Romans were driven out of the greater part of the Belgic province.
The Romans, under an able general, Cerealis, took advantage of this, and Civilis, beaten in fight, retired to the island of the Batavians.
In 1548 Charles laid before the states a scheme for making the Netherlands an integral part of the empire under the name of the Circle of Burgundy; but the refusal of the German Electors to make his only son Philip king of the Romans led him to abandon the project, which was never renewed.
From the Etruscans it made its way to the Romans, though as we shall see it was also modified by them.
Among the Greeks and Romans likewise it was the liver that continued throughout all periods to play the chief role in divination through the sacrificial animal.
We are justified in concluding, therefore, that among the Greeks and Romans likewise the examination of the liver was the basis of divination in the case of the sacrificial animal.
It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
His army was the greatest that the Romans had ever seen.
The Romans answered, We must have time to think of this matter.
The Imperial army, strictly speaking, was one third composed of Dutch, Belgians, men from the borders of the Rhine, Piedmontese, Swiss, Genevese, Tuscans, Romans, inhabitants of the Thirty-second Military Division, of Bremen, of Hamburg, and so on: it included scarcely a hundred and forty thousand who spoke French.
It is usually regarded as the Chretes or Chremetes of Hanno, and the Nachyris and Bambotus of the Greeks and Romans, but it is not possible definitely to identify it with any of the rivers on Ptolemy's map. Idrisi and other medieval Arabian geographers undoubtedly refer to it.
Vico undoubtedly considered the poetic wisdom of the Middle Ages to be different from that of the Greeks and Romans, and Christianity to be very superior to the pagan religion.
Fabricius was regarded by the Romans of later times as a model of ancient simplicity and incorruptible integrity.
There is no evidence of simony in the conclave, and Leo's election was hailed with delight by the Romans on account of his reputation for liberality, kindliness and love of peace.
Thus he devised for Hiero engines of war which almost terrified the Romans, and which protracted the siege of Syracuse for three years.
This is only one of the many Greek legends adopted by the Romans for the purpose of connecting places in Italy with others of likesounding name in Greece.
The Romans had, up to the end of the Republic, accepted only one official apotheosis; the god Quirinus, whatever his original meaning, having been identified with Romulus.
So perished the greatest enemy that the Romans had to encounter in Asia Minor.
The Asmonean dynasty lasted a few years longer, but finally came to an end when Herod the Great, with the aid of the Romans, took possession of Jerusalem and became the first king of the Idumaean dynasty.
The people of Antium were enemies of the Romans and had often been at war with them.