Robertson, another political enemy of Conkling's, to the desirable post of Collector of the Port of New York, and thereby destroyed all prospects of party harmony.
Robertson and F.
21, 22), but the more refined So we must read (as Robertson Smith has pointed out) in xxii.
Robertson, Scotland under her Early Kings (Edinburgh, 1862); Lord Hailes, Annals of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819); A.
The incumbency of Trinity Chapel was held by the famous preacher Frederick William Robertson (1847-18J3).
These details are taken from The Bonin Islands by Russell Robertson, formerly H.B.M.
When Commodore Perry arrived in 1853, there were on Peel Island thirty-one inhabitants, four being English, four American, one Portuguese and the rest natives of the Sandwich Islands, the Ladrones, &c.; and when Mr Russell Robertson visited the place in 1875, the colony had grown to sixty-nine, of whom only five were pure whites.
Mr Robertson found them without education, without religion, without laws and without any system of government, but living comfortably on clearings of cultivated land.
Mr Robertson catalogues a number of valuable timbers that are obtained there, among them being Tremana, cedar, rose-wood, iron-wood (red and white), box-wood, sandal and white oak.
- In addition to the literature already mentioned, see the articles of Sanday on "Colossians" and Robertson on "Ephesians" in Smith's Bible Dictionary (2nd ed., 1893), and the article of A.
Robertson Smith's Old Test.
Armstrong and Robertson, Proc. Roy.
Robertson Smith, on the other hand, a new era was reached, in which the recently recognized existence of Totemism was made the basis of an attempt to give a 1 Scipione de Ricci, bishop of Pistoia from 1780 to 1791, on the ex-Jesuits requesting him to consecrate a bell dedicated to this object, issued a pastoral letter (3rd June 1784) in which he pointed out that the spirit of true religion was "far removed from fetichism," and warned his flock against "cardiolatry."
The human commensals were the totem-kin, whom Robertson Smith conceived to have been in the habit of sharing a common meal in daily life, or at least of not mixing with other kins.
The god was originally a stranger, taken into the kin by a rite of blood brotherhood, and this constitutes the dark point of the theory; for Robertson Smith regards the blood bond as relatively late; hence we do not see how the god became associated with the kin.
Ceremonies of initiation are the means by which the alliance is established between the deity and the young man, when the latter enters upon the rights of manhood; and the supposed bond of kinship is thus regarded as an artificial union from the outset, so far as the individual is concerned, although Robertson Smith still maintains the theory of the fatherhood of the god, where it is a question of the origin of the totem-kin.
This theory of Robertson Smith's has been attacked from two sides.
Hubert and Mauss point out that Robertson Smith is far from having established either the historical or the logical connexion between the common meal and the other types of sacrifice; the simplest Semitic forms known to us are the most recently recorded; further their simplicity may mean no more than documentary insufficiency, and in any case does not imply any priority; the piaculum is found side by side with the communion at all times.
(c) Building in part on the foundation laid by Robertson Smith, Dr J.
In spite of the importance attached to the idea of the common meal by Robertson Smith, it is not a primitive rite of adoption.
On the Congo, if a man commits a murder, the community votes whether he shall die or be expelled; if the latter, a victim is killed, of which all must partake; but this is not, as might be imagined, a case of Robertson Smith's piaculum for the re-establishment of the tribal bond; for the criminal is driven out of the community.
In fact, while Robertson Smith (in Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia, as well as his Religion of the Semites, followed by Stade and Benzinger) strongly advocated the view that clear traces of totemism can be found in early Israel, later writers, such as Marti, Gesch.
(On this subject of holy trees, holy waters and holy stones, consult article Tree-Worship, and Robertson Smith's Religion of the Semites, 2nd ed., pp. 165-197.) The wide prevalence of magic and soothsaying may be illustrated from the historical books of the Old Testament as well as from the pre-exilian prophets.
We are here moving in a realm of ideas prevailing in ancient Israel respecting holiness, uncleanness and sin, which are ceremonial and not ethical; see especially Robertson Smith's Religion of the Semites, 2nd ed., p. 446 foll.
On Semitic religion generally: Wellhausen's Reste des arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed.) and Robertson Smith's Religion of the Semites (2nd ed.) are chiefly to be recommended.
Duhm's Theologie der Propheten and Robertson Smith's Prophets of Israel should also be consulted.
As an historian Prescott stands in the direct line of literary descent from Robertson, whose influence is clearly discernible both in his method and style.
But, while Robertson was in some measure the initiator of a movement, Prescott came to his task when the range of information was incomparably wider and when progress in sociologic theory had thrown innumerable convergent lights upon the progress of events.
Much as he admired these writers, Hume and Robertson were still greater favourites, as well from their subject as for their style.
In addition to public applause, he was gratified by the more select praises of the highest living authorities in that branch of literature: " the candour of Dr Robertson embraced his disciple "; Hume's letter of congratulation " overpaid the labour of ten years."
He was the son of John Henry, a welleducated Scotsman, among whose relatives was the historian William Robertson, and who served in Virginia as county surveyor, colonel and judge of a county court.
Robertson Smith (Old Test.
Sykes in Persia, and by Sir George Robertson and Cockerill in Kafiristan and the Hindu Kush.
Robertson, The Kafirs of the Hindu Kush (London, 1896); Captain Stiffe, " Persian Gulf Trading Centres," vols.
- Robertson Smith's later views subsequent to 1877 (when he wrote the article on David for this Encyclopaedia) were expressed partly in the Old Test.
He guided it through the controversies as to Robertson Smith's heresies, as to the use of hymns and instrumental music, and as to the Declaratory Act, brought to a successful issue the union of the Free and United Presbyterian Churches, and threw the weight of the united church on the side of freedom of Biblical criticism.
Robertson, Modern Humanists (1891); D.
"If," to quote Dr Robertson, "by attempting to relate the various occurrences in the New World in a strict chronological order, the arrangement of events in his work had not been rendered so perplexed, disconnected and obscure that it is an unpleasant task to collect from different parts of his book and piece together the detached shreds of a story, he might justly have been ranked among the most eminent historians of his country."
Robertson Smith, too, argues that Astarte was originally a sheep-goddess, and points to the interesting use of "Astartes of the flocks" (Deut.
Robertson Smith, Relig.
C. Robertson in Materials for the History of Thomas Becket ('7 vols., Rolls Series, 1875-1885).
C. Robertson, Becket (London, 1859); F.
Robertson Smith in Eng.
" Charles," says Robertson, " granted a patent to one of his Flemish favourites, containing an exclusive right " of supplying 4000 negroes annually to Haiti, Cuba, Jamaica and Porto Rico.
Declared his 'The Spaniards, in the space of fifteen years subsequent to the discovery of the West Indies, had, as Robertson mentions, reduced the natives of Haiti from a million to 60,000.
2), Thomas Day (author of Sandford and Merton), Sterne, Warburton, Hutcheson, Beattie, John Wesley, Whitfield, Adam Smith, Millar, Robertson, Dr Johnson, Paley, Gregory, Gilbert Wakefield, Bishop Porteus, Dean Tucker.
She corresponded with Garrick, Dr Blair and Principal Robertson; and when in Edinburgh, where she was very well received, she arranged to entrust the education of her son to Principal Robertson.
Robertson, Democratic Republican (resigned).
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
The communion meal would, according to the views of Robertson Smith, also involve the idea of a covenant; while the fact that no person joining in the meal should be uncircumcised connects the feast with the covenant of Abraham.