East of Martigues the coast is rocky and of greater altitude~and is broken by pro jectirig capes (Couronne, Croisette, Sici, the peninsula of Giens and Cape Antibes), and by deep gulfs forming secure roadsteads such as those of Marseilles, which has the chief port in France, Toulon, with its great naval harbour, and Hyres, to which may be added the Gulf of St Tropez.
Some of these are on the south-west coast, in the Landes, as Carcans, Lacanau, Biscarosse, Cazau, Sanguinet; but more are to be found in the south and south-east, in Languedoc and Provence, as Leucate, Sigean, Thau, Vaccars, Berre, &c. Their want of depth prevents them from serving as roadsteads for shipping, and they are useful chiefly for fishing or for the manufacture of bay-salt.
The term sailor is used in a very wide sense and includes all persons earning their living by navigation on the sea, or in the harbours or roadsteads, or on salt lakes or canals within the maritime domain of the state, or on rivers and canals as far as the tide goes up or sea-going ships can pass.
A remarkable feature of the Cuban coast is the number of excellent anchorages, roadsteads and harbours.
The principal port on the western coast is that formed by the deep and sheltered bay of Vigo, but there are also good roadsteads at Corcubion under Cape Finisterre, at Marin and at Carril.
Besides these there are a number of small indentations, sheltered anchorages formed by islands and reefs like that of Puerto Cabello, and estuaries and also open roadsteads, like those of La Guaira and Carupano, which serve important ports.
Paita and Chimbote have good natural harbours, but the others, for the most part, are open roadsteads or unsheltered bays.
Among the "harbours of incense" exploited by various Pharaohs during some twentyfive centuries it is impossible to believe that the island could be missed by the Egyptian galleys on their way to the "Land of Punt," identified by several writers with Somaliland; nor that, though the roadsteads of the African coast were perhaps oftener frequented, and for other freights besides myrrh and frankincense, the shores of Sokotra were neglected by such ardent explorers as those, for instance, of Queen Hatshepsut of the r8th dynasty.
A disability against the trade of Cyprus has been the want of natural harbours, the ports possessing only open roadsteads; though early in the 10th century the construction of a satisfactory commercial harbour was undertaken at Famagusta, and there is a small harbour at Kyrenia.
The best accommodation that these latter afford consists of more or less open roadsteads, e.g.
On the seaward face of its delta are the open roadsteads of Negapatam and French Karikal.