From its base, in a roadless, mountainous country, almost devoid of water.
The Russians, then, at the beginning of June, were divided into three groups, the Southern, or offensive group (3 5,000), in the triangle Neuchwang-Haicheng-Kaiping; the Eastern or defensive group (30,000), the main body of it guarding the passes right and left of the Wiju-Liao-Yang road, the left (Cossacks) in the roadless hills of the upper Aiho and Yalu valleys, the right (Mishchenko's Cossacks and infantry supports) guarding Fenshuiling pass and the road from Takushan; the reserve (42,000) with Kuropatkin at Liao-Yang; the " Ussuri Army " about Vladivostok; and Stessel's two divisions in the Kwantung peninsula.
The 1st Army, after its long halt at Feng-hwang-cheng, which was employed in minutely organizing the supply service - a task of exceptional difficulty in these roadless mountains - reopened the campaign on the 24th of June, but only tentatively on account of the discouraging news from Port Arthur.
The country was roadless and uninhabited save by wild beasts, and fever and cholera made sad havoc of the working parties; but it was successfully accomplished.
The Greeks, who had concentrated the bulk of their forces in roadless Epirus for the siege of Yannina, lost no time in getting them down to the coast and shipping them to Salonika.
Marching thirty miles that stormy night across roadless hills, with his hungry, ill-shod soldiers, and losing a third of his men as stragglers by the way, Bagration came out on the Vienna-Znaim road at Hollabrunn a few hours ahead of the French who were approaching Hollabrunn from Vienna.