The position was then desperate, wholesale desertion and starvation had decimated the garrison, and three weeks later Ali Riza Pasha, the Turkish commander, was compelled to surrender.
In 1869 Ali Riza Pasha of Tripoli tried to induce settlers to go to Bomba and Tobruk; and in 1888 an abortive effort was made to introduce Kurds.
The Kajar shah walked on foot to the tomb of Imam Riza, before which he knelt and kissed the ground in token of devotion, and was recognized as a Shiite of Shiites.
He was buried at Kum, where is situated the shrine of Fatima, daughter of Imam Riza, by the side of his grandfather, Fath Au, and other kings of Persia.
Treachery may have had to do with the result, for when the shahs troops entered the holy city the ealar sought refuge in the mosque of Imam Riza, and was forcibly expelled.
Persia continued to increase; in December 1904 a special mission under Mirza Riza Khan was received in audience by the tsar; and in May 1905 Muzaffar-ud-Din Shah himself left Persia to visit the courts of Vienna and St Petersburg.
But when at the last moment it became clear that the Bulgarian effort was concentrated on Thrace, `Ali Riza Pasha, commander-in-chief in the Macedonian theatre, was ordered to take the offensive.
Zekki Pasha, in charge of the three corps grouped in the Vardar region, was at once directed by `Ali Riza to move forward against the Serbians as they debouched from the mountains.
Corps to join `Ali Riza at Monastir, where what remained of the V.
1 'Ali Riza had left Monastir, and Zekki was in general command on the field.
The Turkish garrison was under Hasan Riza Bey, consisted of about 14,000 men (chiefly of the 24th Div.), to which were added, at the last moment, a reserve division from Elbasan under command of Essad, 10,000 strong.
The wide separation of the two Montenegrin columns offered the Turks a tempting opportunity of manoeuvre on interior lines, but, for the reasons given above, Hasan Riza was obliged to refrain, and the Montenegrin northern group broke through a series of passively defended positions one after the other.
For some time obscure negotiations had been going on between King Nicholas and Essad, and the brave Hasan Riza Pasha, who had refused to surrender despite the shortage of food, had been assassinated.