To these the semi-sedentary Arabs who sparsely cultivate the river valley, dwelling sometimes in huts, sometimes in caves, pay a tribute, called kubbe, or brotherhood, as do also the riverain towns and villages, except perhaps the very largest.
The only riverain towns of any importance on this stretch of the river to-day are Samsat, Birejik, Deir, `Ana and Hit.
The principal products are millet, sesamum and sugar produced from toddy-palms in the riverain districts, which also grow rice, grain, peas and beans.
The riverain population is largely engaged in agriculture, the chief crops cultivated being durra, barley, wheat and cotton.
The province is mainly a mountainous region, but includes the Peshawar valley and the broad riverain tract of the Indus in Dera Ismail Khan district.
They speak a purer Arabic than the riverain tribes.
Above the ferry at Kilif, a very successful war has been waged by the agricultural Turkman (of the Ersari tribes) against the encroaching sand-waves of the desert; and a strip of riverain soil averaging about a mile in width has been reclaimed and cultivated by irrigation.
Except in the river valleys it is a poor territory, rough and mountainous towards the south, but subsiding into undulating wastes and pasture-lands towards the Turkman desert, and the Oxus riverain which is highly cultivated.