Their object may be (a) to provide a guide to the other world; (b) to provide the dead with servants or a retinue suitable to his rank; (c) to send messengers to keep the dead informed of the things of this world; (d) to strengthen the dead by the blood or life of a living being, in the same way that food is offered to them or blood rituals enjoined on mourners.
Almost all the old rituals have prayers to be said" before the names," after the names."
In the later series of Western rituals, beginning with that which is known as the Leonine Sacramentary, this practice is almost universal.
It was an act of adoration or thanksgiving, much longer in Eastern than in Western rituals, but in both classes of rituals beginning with the form" Lift up your hearts,"and ending with the Ter Sanctus or Trisagion.
Of Western rituals indicate the importance which was attached to this part of the liturgy by the fact of its being written in a much more ornate way than the other parts, e.g.
Of this invocation, which is constant in all Eastern rituals, there are few, though sufficient, surviving traces in Western rituals.'
The change is marked in the rituals by the duplication of the liturgical forms. The prayers of intercession and oblation, which in earlier times are found only in connexion with the former offering, are repeated in the course of the same service in connexion with the latter.
(3) Traces of customs, creeds, rituals, &c., in the Aegean area at a later time, discordant with the civilization in which they were practised and indicating survival from earlier systems. There are also possible linguistic and even physical survivals to be considered.
The controversial introduction is later than the Crusades; but the rituals, as far as Regarding Paulician beliefs we have little except hostile evidence, which needs sifting.
P. Badger, Nestorians and their Rituals (London, 1852); M.
In all these more emotional rituals, the populace sought expression for the religious emotions which were not satisfied by the cold worship of the older deities.
Dorsey, again, draws a distinction between lore narratives, which can be rehearsed without fasting or prayer, and rituals which require the most rigid preparation.
The earliest Armenian rituals contain ample services for the conduct of an agape or love feast held in the church off sacrificial meat.
In their older rituals we find a rite for blessing a painted church, but no word of statues.
In the older rituals we find a rite of exhomologesis, for restoring those who had sinned after baptism.
1 The tithe offered to Yahweh may have originally been consumed - in whole or in representative part - on the altar, but in the rituals preserved to us the offering is symbolical, the deity ceding his tithe to the priest, so that from quite early times the tithe helped to support the priesthood who like the poor had a customary share (guest-right) in the feasts.
The words that accompanied the manual gestures are, in the rituals that have come down to us, wholly dominated by the myth of Osiris:
I have studied the subject most extensively, and have had opportunities of judging which no European can have, and I have no hesitation in saying that, ' the mystic songs' of Jayadeva and the ' ocean of love ' notwithstanding, there is nothing in the rituals of Jagannatha which can be called licentious."
As to the blessing of candles, according to the Liber pontificals Pope Zosimus in 417 ordered these to be blessed, 8 and the Gallican and Mozabaric rituals also provided for this ceremony.9 The Feast of the Purification of the Virgin, known as Candlemas, because on this day the candles for the whole year are blessed, was established - according to some authorities - by Pope Gelasius I.
Either because running water was not always at hand, or as part of the growing tendency of the church to multiply ceremonies, rituals arose late in the 3rd century for consecrating water.