Here we can attempt only a general survey of the events, political, civic and social, which heralded the Risorgimento in its first phase.
(For the campaigns of 1796-1800, 1805-7, 1808-9, 1812-15, see French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Campaigns.) The chief works on civil, diplomatic and personal affairs in the life of Napoleon for the period1796-1799are: P. Gaffarel, Bonaparte et les republiques italiennes, 1796-1799 (Paris, 1895); C. Tivaroni, Storia critica del risorgimento italiano (3 vols., Turin, 1899 - (in progress)); E.
His activity was devoted almost exclusively to the struggle between the papacy and the Italian Risorgimento, the history of which is comprehensible only when the influence exercised by his unscrupulous, grasping and sinister personality is fully taken into account.
There he became convinced that it was only through the House of Savoy that Italy could be liberated, and he expounded his views in Cavour's paper Il Risorgimento, in La Frusta and Il Piemonte, of which latter he was at one time editor.
To him the people of Italy owe a great debt, for if he failed in his object he at least materialized the idea of the Risorgimento in a practical shape, and the charges which the Republicans and demagogues brought against him were monstrously unjust.
From 1848 until the completion of Italian unity in 1870, his whole activity was devoted to the Risorgimento, as Garibaldian officer, political refugee, anti-Austrian conspirator and deputy to parliament.
The prestige personally acquired by Benedetto Cairoli was augmented by that of his four brothers, who fell during the wars of Risorgimento, and by the heroic conduct of their mother.
Fiorentino, Il Risorgimento filosofico nel quattro cento (Naples, 1885); Axel Herrlin, Studier i Nicolaus of Cues' Filosofi (Lund, 1892); H.
Carpi's Risorgimento (Milan, 1886).
Robiony, Gli ultimi dei Medici (Florence, 1905); C. Tivaroni, Storia critica del risorgimento italiano (9 vols., Turin, 1888, &c.); M.
The Carbonarist movement undoubtedly played an important part in the Italian Risorgimento, and if it did not actively contribute to the wars and revolutions of 1848-49, 1859-60 and 1866, it prepared the way for those events.
This was followed (1813-1818) by his magnum opus, the Storia della scultura dal suo risorgimento in Italia al secolo di Napoleone, in the composition of which he had been encouraged and advised by Giordano and Wilhelm Schlegel (1767-1845).
La Marmora's writings include Un episodio del risorgimento italiano (Florence, 1875); and I segreti di stato nel governo constituzionale (Florence, 1877).
The Risorgimento, 1815-1870
Cavours stirring against articles in the Risorgimento hastened the kings decision, Austria.
Lenimis Le Origini del risorgimento italiano (Milan, 1906); E.
It belongs to the municipality, and is used for the Risorgimento Museum.
Italy, for her part, could not go back upon the achievements of the Risorgimento by restoring Rome or any portion of Italian territory to the pope.