Great care is given to the cultivation, and damp atmospheric conditions are desirable during the ripening stages.
The disease is due to poisoning by micro-organisms produced by deteriorated maize, and can be combated by care in ripening, drying and storing the maize.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
This result is partly due to their period of accumulation and growth extending even months after the period of collection by the ripening cereals has terminated, and at the season when nitrification within the soil is most active, and the accumulation of nitrates in it is the greatest.
Pickers are trained to recognize the best plants, " that is, those most productive, earliest in ripening, and having the largest, best formed and most numerous bolls."
If the leaves should happen to shade the fruit, not only during the ripening process but at any time after the stoning period, they should be gently turned aside, for, in order that the fruit may acquire good colour and flavour, it should be freely exposed to light and air when ripening; it will bear the direct rays of the sun, even if they should rise to loo°, but nectarines are much more liable to damage than peaches.
The following are some of the best peaches and nectarines, arranged in the order of the times of their ripening :- Peaches.
Ripening is complete in about 35 days after topping or about 155 days after sowing.
There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.
The ovary is threecelled, ripening into a three-celled capsule.
The Peach House is a structure in which the ripening of the fruit is accelerated by the judicious employment of artificial heat.
The importance of sun heat to the general well-being of plant life, its influence on the production of flowers and the ripening of edible fruits, has long been appreciated in horticulture.
For all exposed sawfly larvae hellebore washes are most fatal, but they must not be used over ripe or ripening fruit, as the hellebore is poisonous.
Inspection of a field of cotton shows that different plants vary as regards productiveness, length, and character of the lint, period of ripening, power of resistance to various pests and of withstanding drought.
Of cereals the common millets, dhura and dukhn, are grown in all parts of the country as the summer crop, and in the hot irrigated Tehama districts three crops are reaped in the year; in the highlands maize, wheat and barley are grown to a limited extent as the winter crop, ripening at the end of March or in April.
The blood of most species behaves differentially towards precipitants, and it is therefore conceivable that when blood is used as food and is elaborated into special compounds for the nutrition of the reproductive organs of a parasite, these specific or larger differences in the blood of animal hosts may prevent the ripening of the gonads of a widely diffused parasite and only one particular kind of blood prove suitable.
Autumnus, auctumnus, from augere, to increase, the period of ripening or fruiting) and "winter" (common Teutonic, possibly a nasalized form of root seen in "wet").
Grasshoppers (batta) are abundant, and one kind (inago), which frequent the rice-fields when the cereal is.ripening, are caught and fried in oil as ad article of food.
The " fig-insects," whose presence in ripening figs is believed essential to the proper development of the fruit, belong to Blastophaga and other genera of this family.
The structure of the flower represents the simple type of monocotyledons, consisting of two whorls of petals, of three free parts each, six free stamens, and a consolidated pistil of three carpels, ripening into a three-valved capsule containing many winged seeds.
Both bear their round or ovoid male catkins at the ends of the slender terminal branchlets; the ovoid cones, either terminal or on short lateral twigs, have thick woody scales dilated at the extremity, with a broad disk depressed in the centre and usually furnished with a short spine; at the base of the scales are from three to seven ovules, which become reversed or partially so by compression, ripening into small angular seed with a narrow wing-like expansion.
Summer fallowing is, however, subject to one drawback: the strong growth which it induces is apt to retard the ripening of the grain.
Brown Globe, including Magnum Bonum; White Globe; Yellow Danvers; White Spanish, in its several forms; Trebons, the finest variety for autumn sowing, attaining a large size early, ripening well, and keeping good till after Christmas; Ailsa Craig; Ronsham Park Hero; James's Keeping; Cranston's Excelsior; Blood Red, strong-flavoured.
Their functions in annual, biennial and herbaceous perennial plants cease after the ripening of the seed, whilst in plants of longer duration layer after layer of strong woody tissue is formed, which enables them to bear the strains which the weight of foliage and the exposure to wind entail.
The thorough ripening of the preceding season's wood in fruit trees and flowering plants, and of the crown in perennial herbs like strawberries, and the cessation of all active growth before the time they are to start into a new growth, are of paramount importance.
The ripening process must be brought about by free exposure to light, and by the application of a little extra heat with dryness, if the season should be unfavourable; and both roots and tops must submit to a limitation of their water supply.
When the ripening is perfected, the resting process must be aided by keeping the temperature in which they await the forcing process as low as each particular subject can bear.
Keep up the necessary temperatures for the ripening of the various fruits.
Preserve the ripening fruits on the wall and other trees from insects, and destroy wasp nests.
Where the walls are heated, assist the maturing of peaches and nectarines, and the ripening of the young wood for next year, by fires during the day.
Sow a few kidney beans for an early forced crop. Expel damp, and assist the ripening of late grapes and peaches with fires during the day.
But even in plants with hermaphrodite flowers self-fertilization is often provided against by the structure of the parts or by the period of ripening of the organs.
The winter varieties have the advantages of larger yield, earlier ripening and lesser loss from insects, and afford protection to the soil.
Pomponius Mela speaks of the climate as unfit for ripening grain, but he, too, notices the luxuriance of the grass.
Stratiotes has similar flowers which come above the surface only for pollination, becoming submerged again during ripening of the fruit.
A high or low percentage of nitrogen in the grain was also shown to depend more directly on the degree of ripening, as influenced by the character of the season, than on difference in manure; but it depends more upon the variety than upon soil or nutrition.
A still higher daily mean is required for the full development and ripening of the grain.
From the lower part of a carpel are produced several laterally placed ovules, which become bright red or orange on ripening; the bright fleshy seeds, which in some species are as large as a goose's egg, and the tawny spreading carpels produce a pleasing combination of colour in the midst of the long dark-green fronds, which curve gracefully upwards and outwards from the summit of the columnar stem.
A peculiar method of distribution occurs in some alpine and arctic grasses, which grow under conditions where ripening of the fruit is often uncertain.
21 he is named as the angel who destroyed the host of Sennacherib; and in similar writings of a still later period he is spoken of as the spirit who presides over fire, thunder, the ripening of the fruits of the earth and similar processes.
(2) The Spanish or sweet chestnut, Castanea saliva (natural order, Fagaceae), is a stately and magnificent tree, native of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, but also ripening its fruit in sheltered situations as far north as Scotland.
Quite distinct is the search for the germs which cause undesirable changes, or " diseases "; and great strides have been made in discovering the bacteria concerned in rendering milk " ropy," butter " oily " and " rancid," &c. Cheese in its numerous forms contains myriads of bacteria, and some of these are now known to be concerned in the various processes of ripening and other changes affecting the product, and although little is known as to the exact part played by any species, practical applications of the discoveries of the decade 1890-1900 have been made, e.g.