The disease is due to poisoning by micro-organisms produced by deteriorated maize, and can be combated by care in ripening, drying and storing the maize.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
This result is partly due to their period of accumulation and growth extending even months after the period of collection by the ripening cereals has terminated, and at the season when nitrification within the soil is most active, and the accumulation of nitrates in it is the greatest.
For all exposed sawfly larvae hellebore washes are most fatal, but they must not be used over ripe or ripening fruit, as the hellebore is poisonous.
Inspection of a field of cotton shows that different plants vary as regards productiveness, length, and character of the lint, period of ripening, power of resistance to various pests and of withstanding drought.
Pickers are trained to recognize the best plants, " that is, those most productive, earliest in ripening, and having the largest, best formed and most numerous bolls."
If the leaves should happen to shade the fruit, not only during the ripening process but at any time after the stoning period, they should be gently turned aside, for, in order that the fruit may acquire good colour and flavour, it should be freely exposed to light and air when ripening; it will bear the direct rays of the sun, even if they should rise to loo°, but nectarines are much more liable to damage than peaches.
The following are some of the best peaches and nectarines, arranged in the order of the times of their ripening :- Peaches.
Ripening is complete in about 35 days after topping or about 155 days after sowing.
Great care is given to the cultivation, and damp atmospheric conditions are desirable during the ripening stages.
There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.
Of cereals the common millets, dhura and dukhn, are grown in all parts of the country as the summer crop, and in the hot irrigated Tehama districts three crops are reaped in the year; in the highlands maize, wheat and barley are grown to a limited extent as the winter crop, ripening at the end of March or in April.
The blood of most species behaves differentially towards precipitants, and it is therefore conceivable that when blood is used as food and is elaborated into special compounds for the nutrition of the reproductive organs of a parasite, these specific or larger differences in the blood of animal hosts may prevent the ripening of the gonads of a widely diffused parasite and only one particular kind of blood prove suitable.
Autumnus, auctumnus, from augere, to increase, the period of ripening or fruiting) and "winter" (common Teutonic, possibly a nasalized form of root seen in "wet").
Grasshoppers (batta) are abundant, and one kind (inago), which frequent the rice-fields when the cereal is.ripening, are caught and fried in oil as ad article of food.
The " fig-insects," whose presence in ripening figs is believed essential to the proper development of the fruit, belong to Blastophaga and other genera of this family.
The ovary is threecelled, ripening into a three-celled capsule.
The structure of the flower represents the simple type of monocotyledons, consisting of two whorls of petals, of three free parts each, six free stamens, and a consolidated pistil of three carpels, ripening into a three-valved capsule containing many winged seeds.
Both bear their round or ovoid male catkins at the ends of the slender terminal branchlets; the ovoid cones, either terminal or on short lateral twigs, have thick woody scales dilated at the extremity, with a broad disk depressed in the centre and usually furnished with a short spine; at the base of the scales are from three to seven ovules, which become reversed or partially so by compression, ripening into small angular seed with a narrow wing-like expansion.
Summer fallowing is, however, subject to one drawback: the strong growth which it induces is apt to retard the ripening of the grain.
Brown Globe, including Magnum Bonum; White Globe; Yellow Danvers; White Spanish, in its several forms; Trebons, the finest variety for autumn sowing, attaining a large size early, ripening well, and keeping good till after Christmas; Ailsa Craig; Ronsham Park Hero; James's Keeping; Cranston's Excelsior; Blood Red, strong-flavoured.
Their functions in annual, biennial and herbaceous perennial plants cease after the ripening of the seed, whilst in plants of longer duration layer after layer of strong woody tissue is formed, which enables them to bear the strains which the weight of foliage and the exposure to wind entail.
The Peach House is a structure in which the ripening of the fruit is accelerated by the judicious employment of artificial heat.
The importance of sun heat to the general well-being of plant life, its influence on the production of flowers and the ripening of edible fruits, has long been appreciated in horticulture.
The thorough ripening of the preceding season's wood in fruit trees and flowering plants, and of the crown in perennial herbs like strawberries, and the cessation of all active growth before the time they are to start into a new growth, are of paramount importance.
While I was surprised that she could write like this, I was not more astonished than I had been many times before at the unexpected achievements of my little pupil, especially as we had exchanged many beautiful thoughts on the subject of the glory of the ripening foliage during the autumn of this year.