For about a century and a half before that time, levee building had been undertaken in a more or less spasmodic and tentative way, first by riparian proprietors, then by local combinations of public and private interests, and finally by the state, acting through levee districts, advised by a Board of Engineers.
The entire state is included within the Austro-riparian life zone; the higher portions fall within the Carolinian area and the lower portions, including the Gulf and the Mississippi embayment almost to the N.E.
An excellent service of electric trams interconnect the towns of Hamburg, Altona and the adjacent suburbs, and steamboats provide communication on the Elbe with the riparian towns and villages; and so with Blankenese and Harburg, with Stade, Gliickstadt and Cuxhaven.
The fisheries are under the regulation of by-laws made by the Thames Conservancy, which apply to the riparian owners as well as to the public generally.
The attempt made by the British Euphrates expedition in 1841 to connect Aleppo with the sea by steamer through the nearest point on the Euphrates, Meskine, failed owing to the obstructed state of the stream and the insecurity of the riparian districts.
In the days of the old German empire no fewer than thirty-five different tolls were levied between Melnik and Hamburg, to say nothing of the special dues and privileged exactions of various riparian owners and political authorities.
Many of the riparian potentates derived the bulk of their revenue from this source, and it is calculated that in the 18th century the Rhine yielded a total revenue of X200,000, in spite of the comparatively insignificant amount of the shipping.
Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.
Until modern times the city was built largely on floating pontoons or on piles at the edges of the innumerable canals and water-courses which formed the thoroughfares, but to meet the requirements of modern life, well-planned roads and streets have been constructed in all directions, crossing the old canals at many points and lined with well-built houses, for the most part of brick, in which the greater part of the erstwhile riparian population now resides.
This serious defect of solid weirs, where the riparian lands are liable to be injured by inundations, can be slightly mitigated by keeping down the crest of the weir somewhat below the required level, and then raising the water-level at the low stage of the river by placing a row of planks along the top of the weir.
The rivers Scheldt and Meuse were opened up in this way to riparian states by a decree of the French Convention of the 16th of November 1792.
The laws regarding water in most of the arid states were indefinite or contradictory, being based partly on the common law regarding riparian rights, and partly upon the Spanish law allowing diversion of water from natural streams. Few fundamental principles were established, except in the case of the state of Wyoming, where an official was charged with the duty of ascertaining the amount of water in the streams and apportioning this to the claimants in the order of their priority of appropriation for beneficial use.
The introduction of other exotics into these zones, - made humid by irrigation, which converts them, the one into true austro-riparian the other into true humid tropical, has revolutionized the agricultural, and indeed the whole, economy of California.
The riparian doctrine does not obtain in Colorado.
The waters of the state are, by the constitution of the state, devoted to the public use, contrary to the common law theory of riparian rights.
Funds for the support of the public schools are derived from various sources: (1) the interest on the " surplus revenue " ($760,670), deposited with New Jersey by the Federal government in 1836; (2) the income from the state school fund, consisting largely of receipts from the sale and rental of riparian lands 1; (3) a state school tax; (4) a direct appropriation by the legislature to supplement the school tax, so that the two combined will form a sum equal to a tax of two and three-fourths mills on each dollar of taxable property; and (5) local taxes.
Among the denominational institutions are the Theological Seminary (Presbyterian) at Princeton; the Drew Theological Seminary (Methodist Episcopal) at Madison; Seton Hall College (Roman Catholic), at South Orange; St Peter's College (Roman Catholic) at Jersey City; St Benedict's College (Roman Catholic) at Newark; the German Theological School of Newark 1 The state's title to its riparian lands was established, after a long controversy, in 1870 in the case of Stevens v.
The expenses of the state government are met chiefly by special taxes on railway and canal corporations, a franchise tax on the capital stock of other corporations, a collateral inheritance tax and leases of riparian lands.
The reclaiming and protecting of the riparian lands went on rapidly under the Romans, and in several places the rectangular divisions of the ground, still remarkably distinct, show the military character of some of the agricultural colonies.
Embayment lies in the Austro-riparian area of the same zone.
These illustrations of the enormous variability of discharge serve to explain what is popularly so little understood, namely, the advantage which riparian owners, or other persons Comperei nterested in a given stream, may derive from works cation water.
Thus the benefit to the fisheries and to the riparian owners generally is beyond all question; but the cost to the water authority of conferring that benefit is also very great - commonly (according to the proportion of the natural flow intended to be rendered uniform) 20 to 35% of ' The volume of compensation water is usually fixed as a given fraction of the so-called " available supply " (which by a convention that has served its purpose well, is understood to be the average flow of the stream during the three consecutive driest years).