He spent two years from 1886 to 1888 in travelling, and visited Riga Polytechnic and the universities of Wiirzburg, Graz, Amsterdam and Leipzig.
Tsaritsyn is the terminus of a railway which begins at Riga and, running south-eastwards, intersects all the main lines which radiate from Moscow to the south.
The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which is not inhabited by Sla y s, but by Finnish races and by Germans.
Dvina, which falls into the sea below Riga, is shallow above the rapids of Jacobstadt, but navigation is carried on as far as Vitebsk - corn, timber, potash, flax, &c., being the principal shipments of its navigable tributaries (the Obsha, Ulla and Kasplya).
The summer isotherms cross the winter isotherms nearly at right angles, so that Kiev and Ufa, Warsaw and Tobolsk, Riga and the upper Kama have the same average summer temperatures of 64°, 622° and 61° respectively.
Of Livonia; the Livs, on the Gulf of Riga; and the Kurs, intermingled with the Letts; (b) the N.
Similar industries, carried on by similar methods, exist at St Petersburg, Riga, Narva and Odessa.
The connecting link between the western and the eastern Baltic was the isle of Gotland, where German merchants from Lubeck had established a depot (the later Visby)_ The fur-trade with the Esthonians and Livonians proved so lucrative that a German colony was planted in Livonia itself at what was afterwards Riga, and in 1201 for its better security the colony was converted into a bishopric. A still firmer footing was gained by the Germans on Livonian soil when Abbot Theoderick of Riga founded the order of the Sword (a foundation confirmed by the pope in 1204), whose duty it was to convert the heathen Esths and Livs and appropriate as much of their land in the process as possible.
Despite its superior weapons and mode of warfare, the German east Baltic colony was constantly in danger of being overborne by the endless assaults of the dogged aborigines, whose hatred of the religion of the Cross as preached by the knights is very intelligible; and in 1218 Bishop Albert of Riga was driven to appeal for assistance to King Valdemar.
This was an order founded by Albert, 3rd bishop of Riga, in 1201, to serve as an instrument, under his control, for the conquest of the land.
On the 6th of October he had reached Pernau, with the intention of first relieving Riga, but, hearing that Narva was in great straits, he decided to turn northwards against the tsar.
-The independent republic of Latvia (capital Riga) was proclaimed on Nov.
1919 the Polytechnic Institute of Riga was converted into the Latvia University.
Occupations.-The pre-war growth of industries, especially in Riga and Libau, tended to reduce the percentage of the agricultural population, but agriculture is still the chief occupation, and the redivision of the rural population was the outstanding feature after 1918.
In 1920 there were only 17,606 workers and employees in private industrial enterprises, 988 in municipal enterprises, and 2,880 in state enterprises; in Riga alone, 9,739 in private enterprises against 62,000 in 1914.
1913 Riga numbered 517,522 inhabitants, in Aug.
The German industrial capital in Riga amounted to 40,000,000 rubles before the war.
The returns for 1920 show that 805 ships left Libau, 751 Riga and 123 Windau.
Even after the fall of Riga (Aug.
The Baltic volunteers were defeated by the Bolsheviks on Dec. 29 at Hintzenberg; and since the agreement made on Dec. 29 by Ulmanis with the German representative, the Socialist Winnig, did not attract a sufficient number of volunteers from Germany for the formation of an Iron Div., Riga fell on Jan.
Parleys, in which the United States and England took part, did not prevent the advance on Riga and the liberation of this city on May 22, where Baron H.
The Esthonians were hailed as liberators of Riga by the Lettish Assembly.
But the Ulmanis Cabinet was not as yet the sole ruler of Latvia, the Bolsheviks holding Latgalia, and a Russo-German force under Bermondt-Avalov preparing an advance against the Bolsheviks across Latvian territory, plan adopted at a Riga conference on Aug.
9 the fighting began; Riga was shelled for five weeks.
Riga and the other towns were provided with foodstuffs by the United States.
See The Latvian Economist, published monthly in Riga since May 1920.
London, Hamburg, Bremen and the chief Baltic ports as far as Riga and St Petersburg participate in the traffic on the Rhine.
In the East, the German Order, while enjoying Hanseatic privileges, frequently opposed the policy of the League abroad, and was only prevented by domestic troubles and its Hinterland enemies from playing its own hand in the Baltic. After the fall of the order in 1467, the towns of Prussia and Livland, especially Dantzig and Riga, pursued an exclusive trade policy even against their Hanseatic confederates.
Soon after this he got an appointment at Riga, as assistant master at the cathedral school, and a few years later, became assistant pastor.
Of Riga, in 58° 23' N.
A little more than twelve months later, a coup d'etat placed the tsesarevna Elizabeth on the throne (December 6, 1741), and Ivan and his family were imprisoned in the fortress of Diinamtinde (Ust Dvinsk) (December 1 3, 1742) after a preliminary detention a Riga, from whence the new empress had at first decided to send them home to Brunswick.
By the Gulf of Riga, N.
M.) at the entrance of the Gulf of Riga, of which Oesel, Mohn, Runo and Paternoster are the largest, belong to this government.
At Riga (winter 23°, summer 63°) and 40 at Yuriev.
The winds are very variable; the average number of rainy and snowy days is 146 at Riga (rainfall 24.1 in.).
Fishing in Lake Peipus gives occupation to nearly 100,000 persons, and is also carried on in the Gulf of Riga and in the rivers.
Livonia carries on a large export trade, especially through Riga and Pernau, in petroleum, wool, oilcake, flax, linseed, hemp, grain, timber and wooden wares; the Dvina is the chief channel for this trade.
The higher educational institutions include Yuriev (Dorpat) University, Riga polytechnic and a high school for the clergy.
The government is divided into nine districts, the chief towns of which, with their populations in 1897, are: Riga, capital of the government (282, 943); Arensburg, in the island of Oesel (4621); Yuriev or Dorpat (42,421); Fellin (7659); Pernau (12,856); Walk (10,1 39): Wenden (6327); Werro (4154); and Wolmar (5124).
Riga having become a centre for trade, intermediate between the Hanseatic towns and those of Novgorod, Pskov and Polotsk.
The order, having purchased the Danish part of Esthonia, in 1347, began a war against the bishop of Riga, as well as against Lithuania, Poland and Russia.
On the other hand, the authority of the bishops of Riga was soon completely destroyed (1566).
At Riga there is a floating pontoon bridge over the Diina.
Matters were complicated by the curious political intricacies of this long-coveted domain, where the grand-master, the archbishop of Riga, and the estates of Livonia possessed concurrent and generally conflicting jurisdictions.
At his camp before Riga the last grand-master, Gotthard von Ketteler, who had long been at the head of the Polish party in Livonia, and William of Brandenburg, archbishop of Riga, gladly placed themselves beneath his protection, and by a subsequent convention signed at Vilna (Nov.
Chodkiewicz was one of the few magnates who remained loyal to the king, and after helping to defeat the rebels in Poland a fresh invasion of Livonia by the Swedes recalled him thither, and once more he relieved Riga besides capturing Pernau.
Within fourteen years the following Bible societies were in active operation: the Basel Bible Society (founded at Nuremberg, 1804), the Prussian Bible Society (founded as the Berlin Bible Society, 1805), the Revel Bible Society (1807), the Swedish Evangelical Society (1808), the Dorpat Bible Society (1811), the Riga Bible Society (1812), the Finnish Bible Society (1812), the Hungarian Bible Institution (Pressburg, 1812), the Wurttemberg Bible Society (Stuttgart, 1812), the Swedish Bible Society (1814), the Danish Bible Society (1814), the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden, 1814), the Thuringian Bible Society (Erfurt, 1814), the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld, 1814), the Hanover Bible Society (1814), the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society (1814), the Lubeck Bible Society (1814), the Netherlands Bible Society (Amsterdam, 1814).
It grows in Sweden, Norway, Russia, Germany and Great Britain, and often gets a name from the port of shipment, such as Memel fir, Danzig fir, Riga fir, and so on.
The magistracy was for two centuries almost exclusively in the hands of the merchant aristocracy, who formed the companies of traders or "nations," such as the Bergen-fahrer, Novgorodfahrer, Riga fahrer and Stockholm-fahrer.
In connexion with the Germans at Visby, the capital of Gotland, and at Riga, where they had a house from 1231, the people of Lubeck with their armed vessels scoured the sea between the Trave and the Neva.
From the Ukraine he was transferred to the Baltic Provinces and was made the first governor-general of Riga after its capture in 1710.
After leaving his second post he was received into the house of a merchant at Riga named Johann Christoph Behrens, who contracted a great friendship for him and selected him as his companion for a tour through Danzig, Berlin, Hamburg, Amsterdam and London.
He returned to Riga, and was well received by the Behrens family, in whose house he resided for some time.
The following are the more important streams of this name: Two rivers in the west of Russia, both falling into the Gulf of Riga, near Riga, which is situated between them; a river in the north of France, falling into the sea below Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; and a river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and Aargau, which carries the waters of Lakes Baldegger and Hallwiler into the Aar.
Other less important canals connect it with the Western Dvina (Riga) and the White Sea (Archangel); while a railway only 45 m.
Riga and St Petersburg (including Cronstadt) are the principal ports, but flax is also exported from Revel, Windau, Pernau, Libau, Narva and Konigsberg.
The following names amongst others are given to the fibre: - Archangel, Bajetsky, Courish, Dorpat, Drogobusher, Dunaberg, Fabrichnoi, Fellin, Gjatsk, Glazoff, Griazourtz, Iwashkower, Jaransk, Janowitz, Jaropol, Jaroslav, Kama, Kashin, Konigsberg, Kostroma, Kotelnitch, Kowns, Krasnoholm, Kurland (Courland), Latischki, Livonian Crowns, Malmuish, Marienberg, Mochenetz, Mologin, Newel, Nikolsky, Nolinsk, Novgorod, Opotchka, Ostroff, Ostrow, Otbornoy, Ouglitch, Pernau, Pskoff, Revel, Riga, Rjeff, St Petersburg, Seretz, Slanitz, Slobodskoi, Smolensk, Sytcheffka, Taroslav, Tchesna, Totma, Twer, Ustjuga, Viatka, Vishni, Vologda, Werro, Wiasma, Witebsk.
Of the lower qualities of Riga flax the following may be named: PW, Picked wrack flax.
The last-named (SD and PSD) are dew-retted qualities shipped from Riga either as Lithuanian Slanitz, Wellish Slanitz or Wiasma Slanitz, showing from what district they come, as there are differences in the quality of the produce of each district.
The lowest quality of Riga flax is marked DW, meaning Dreiband Wrack.
Stockholm, the capital, lay in the very centre of the empire, whose second greatest city was Riga, on the other side of the sea.