But the new popular order, which had already asserted its predominance in the council of the riformatori, now drove out the dodicini, and for five days (rrth to 16th December) kept the government in its own hands.
Then, however, moved by fear of the emperor, who had passed through Siena two months before on his way to Rome, and who was about to halt there on his return, it tried to conciliate its foes by creating a fresh council of 150 riformatori, who replaced the twelve defenders by a new supreme magistracy of fifteen, consisting of eight popolani, four dodicini, and three noveschi, entitled respectively "people of the greater number," "people of the middle number," and "people of the less number."
From this renewal dates the formation of the new order or monte dei riformatori, the title henceforth bestowed on all citizens, of both the less and the greater people, who had reformed the government and begun to participate in it in 1368.
In spite of its wide basis and great energy, the monte dei riformatori, the heart of the new government, could not satisfactorily cope with the attacks of adverse factions and treacherous allies.
But the appetite for power of the "less people" and the dregs of the populace was whetted rather than satisfied by the installation of the riformatori in the principal posts of authority.
Their discontent had been gradually swelled by various acts of home and foreign policy during the sixteen years' rule of the riformatori, nor had the concessions granted to the partisans of the twelve and the latter's recall and renewed eligibility to office availed to conciliate them.
The riformatori were ousted from power and expelled the city, and the trade of Siena suffered no little injury by the exile of so many artisan families.
Thus began a new order or monte del popolo, composed of families of the same class as the riformatori, but having had no part in the government during the latter's rule.
But in 1402 the death of 1 The following are the ordini or monti that held power in Siena for any considerable time - gentiluomini, from the origin of the republic; nove, from about 1285; dodici, from 1355; riformatori, from 1368; popolo, from 1385.
By the partial readmission of the riformatori and exclusion of the twelve, the permanent balia was now composed of nine priors (three of the nine, three of the people, and three of the riformatori) and of a captain of the people to be chosen from each of the three monti in turn.
The noveschi (to whose order most of the rebels belonged) favoured his pretensions, but the riformatori were against him.
Dividing the power between their two orders of the nine and the people, they excluded the riformatori and replaced them by a new and heterogeneous order styled the aggregati, composed of nobles, exiles of 1456 and citizens of other orders who had never before been in office.
The monte del popolo seized the lion's share of the government; the riformatori were recalled, the aggregati abolished and the noveschi condemned to perpetual banishment from the government and the city.
Under the rule of Venice the university was governed by a board of three patricians, called the Riformatori dello Studio di Padova.