RIFFIANS, the name given to the Berbers of the Rif district of Morocco, the mountain region bordering the north coast from Ceuta eastward nearly to the borders of Algeria and forming part of the Atlas range.
A peculiarity of the Rif dialect is the change of the Arabic "1" to "r," and this would seem to support this derivation, "b" and "f" being interchangeable through "v."
- to Melilla, a distance of some 150 m., the Rif Mountains face the Mediterranean, and here, as along the whole coast eastward to Cape Bon, many rugged rocks rise boldly above the general level.
A study of the changes going on in the rif tvalley in which the lakes lie leads, however, to the belief that the Albert Edward and Albert Nyanzas are drying up, a process which the nature of the drainage areas is helping to bring about.
In 1844, when war between Spain and Morocco was threatened by reason of the frequent raids by the inhabitants of the Rif on the Spanish settlement of Ceuta, Spain declined arbitration on the ground that her rights were too clear for argument.
(The lakes are separately described.) Several smaller lakes occur in parts of the eastern rif tvalley.
By the Arabs Lower Egypt is called Er-Rif, the cultivated or fertile; Upper Egypt Es Said, the happy or fortunate.