It is especially necessary to make clear that the language known as Umbrian is that of a certain limited area, which cannot yet be shown to have extended very far beyond the eastern half of the Tiber valley (from Interamna Nahartium to Urvinum Mataurense), because the term is often used by archaeologists with a far wider connotation to include all the Italic, pre-Etruscan inhabitants of upper Italy; Professor Ridgeway, for instance, in his Early Age of Greece, frequently speaks of the "Umbrians" as the race to which belonged the Villanova culture of the Early Iron age.
4  io) showing that the customs of the Bruttii had a certain affinity with those of the pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Greece, and it has been argued (Ridgeway apud Conway, Ital.
Ridgeway (Early Age of Greece, 1901) considers that the Belgic tribes were Cimbri, "who had moved directly across the Rhine into north-eastern Gaul."
Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece (1901 foil.); H.
Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece, i.
West-Ridgeway, was sent to South Africa to inquire into and report upon various.
We do not, however, know that the initial sound of this word was originally a Velar q, and Professor Ridgeway (" Who were the Romans," London, 1908,1908, in Proceedings of the British Academy, iii.
15 See an interesting paper on " Stretching and Yawning as Signs of Madness," by Professor Ridgeway (Trans.
Ridgeway, who maintains that the Iron age originated in central Europe, and that iron must consequently have been worked in those regions as far back as C. 2000 BC.
Ridgeway, The Early Age of Greece (Igor), for a detailed discussion of the evidence; articles by Ridgeway and J.
Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece; ARCHAEOLOGY (plate).
Ridgeway, The Early Age of Greece (Cambridge, 1901); V.
See also Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece, vol.
Ridgeway (Classical Review, January 1896), comparing Apollo Smintheus, interprets Bassareus as " he who keeps away the foxes from the vineyards " (for various interpretations of these and other cult-titles, see O.