HUMACAO, a small city and the capital of a municipal district and department of the same name, in Porto Rico, 46 m.
North of Porto Rico) by the U.S. ship " Blake " in 1883.
In 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon (c. 1 4 60-1521), who had been with Christopher Columbus on his second voyage and had later been governor of Porto Rico, obtained a royal grant authorizing him to discover and settle " Bimini," - a fabulous island believed to contain a marvellous fountain or spring whose waters would restore to old men their youth or at least had wonderful curative powers.
PORTO RICO, or Puerto Rico ("Rich Harbour"), an island of the United States of America, the most easterly and the fourth in size of the Greater Antilles, situated between 17° 50' and 18° 30' N., and between 65° 30' and 67° 15' W., about 70 m.
Under the same jurisdiction as Porto Rico are the fertile island of Vieques (21 m.
' a 'Porto Rico Scale 1:2,200.000 `.
The American Railroad of Porto Rico, about 190 m.
The commerce of Porto Rico is principally with the United States.
The Roman Catholic is the predominant church and the bishopric of Porto Rico (1512) is one of the oldest in the New World.
The constitution of Porto Rico is contained in an act of the Congress of the United States (the Foraker Act) which came into operation in May 1900.
The constitution requires that at least five of the eleven members of the Executive Council shall be native inhabitants of Porto Rico; in practice the six members who are also heads of the administrative departments have been Americans while the other five have been Porto Ricans.
Trade between Porto Rico and the United States is free, but upon imports to Porto Rico from foreign countries the Federal government collects custom duties and pays the net proceeds to the insular government.
While Ponce was exploring Florida in 1513 the conquerors of Porto Rico had established their domination in the upper western portion of the island by a series of settlements.
For a time the Borinquenos, aided by Caribs from the neighbouring islands, threatened to destroy all vestiges of white occupation in Porto Rico, but in the end the Spaniards prevailed.
Here a remnant of the Borinquenos, assisted by the Caribs, maintained a severe struggle with the conquerors, but in the end their Indian allies were subdued by English and French corsairs, and the unfortunate natives of Porto Rico were left alone to experience the full effect of forced labour, disastrous hurricanes, natural plagues and new diseases introduced by the conquerors.
At no period of its history has Porto Rico enjoyed great prosperity.
Until 1782 the island was divided into the eastern district of Puerto Rico and the western one of San German.
About 1520 Caparra was abandoned for a more healthy site, and the city of San Juan de Puerto Rico was founded as the capital of the eastern district.
In time Puerto Rico became the name of the whole island.
The buccaneers or filibusters, who during the 17th century were drawn to the West Indies by the prospect of plundering the possessions of decadent Spain, often invaded Porto Rico, but that island escaped the conquest which Haiti experienced.
Porto Rico was comparatively unaffected by the great SpanishAmerican uprising of the early 19th century.
The unsettled political condition of Spain during the next forty years was reflected in the disturbed political conditions of Porto Rico and Cuba.
Under the short-lived republican government in Spain Porto Rico was in1870-1874a province with a provincial deputation, and in 1873 slavery was abolished.
The main source for the history under the Spanish is Fray Inigo Abbad, Historia geografica civil y natural de San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico (Madrid, 1788; a new edition with notes by Jose J.
Acosta was published in Porto Rico in 1866).
The best modern critical account in Spanish is Salvador Brau, Puerto Rico y su historia (Valencia, 1894).
Van Middeldyk, The History of Puerto Rico (New York, 1903).
See also Annual Reports of the Governor of Porto Rico (Washington, 1901 sqq.); H.
(ibid., 1902); Report on the Census of Porto Rico (Washington, 1900); W.
Willoughby, Insular and Municipal Finances in Porto Rico for the Fiscal Year 1902-1903, issued by the Bureau of the United States Census (ibid., 190, 5); R.
Hill, Cuba and Porto Rico (New York, 1898).
GUAYAMA, a small city and the capital of a municipal district and department of the same name, on the southern coast of Porto Rico, 53 m.
In1907-1908all the sugar produced from cane grown in the United States came from Louisiana (335,000 long tons) and Texas (12,000 tons); in the same year cane sugar from Hawaii amounted to 420,000 tons, from Porto Rico to 217,000 tons and from the Philippines to 135,000 tons; and the total yield of beet sugar from the United States was 413,954 tons.
The total commerical movement of the island in the five calendar years 1902-1906 averaged $177,882,640 (for the five fiscal years 1902-1903 to 1906-1907, $185,987,020) annually, and of this the share of the United States was $108,431,000 yearly, representing 45.8% of all imports and 1 In these same years the trade of the United States with Cuba and Porto Rico was: importations from the islands, $59,221,444 annually; exportations to the islands, $20,017,156.
Cables connect the island with Florida, Jamaica, Haiti and San Domingo, Porto Rico, the lesser Antilles, Panama, Venezuela and Brazil.
Including all unions the total is below the European proportion, but above that of Porto Rico or Jamaica in 1899.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
Hill, Cuba and Porto Rico with the other West Indies (New York, 1898).
Coleccion de informes, memorias, proyectos y antecedentes sobre el gobierno de la isla de Cuba (Madrid, 1875); Vicente Vasquez Queipo, Informe fiscal sobre fomento de la poblacion blanca (Madrid, 1845); Informacion sobre reformas en Cuba y Puerto Rico celebrada en Madrid en 1866 y 67 por los representantes de ambas islas (2 tom., New York, 1867; 2nd ed., New York, 1877); and the Diccionario of Pezuela.
Conte, Aspiraciones del partido liberal de Cuba (Havana, 1892); P. Valiente, Roformes dans les Iles de Cuba et de Porto Rico (Paris, 1869); C. de Sedano, Cuba: Estudios politicos (Madrid, 1872); H.
From that date, until after the colonization of New Providence by the British, there is no record of a Spanish visit to the Bahamas, with the exception of the extraordinary cruise of Juan Ponce de Leon, the conqueror of Porto Rico, who passed months searching the islands for Bimini, which was reported to contain the miraculous "Fountain of Youth."
SAN GERMAN, a city of the department of Mayaguez, Porto Rico, in the south-western part of the island, about Io m.
Hill, Cuba and Porto Rico (1897).
The West Atlantic Trough lying on the western side of the Central Rise widens in the north into the North American Basin, and its, greatest depths appears to be in the Porto Rico Trench, where in 1882 Capt.
Some attention is also being given to the manufacture of alcohol for power purposes in Hawaii, Porto Rico and the Philippines; and in Cuba, from the molasses produced as a by-product in the sugar refineries.
But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.
The polished stone work is superb, finding its climax in Porto Rico, which seems to have been the sacred island of the Caribs.
CAYEY, an inland district and mountain town of the department of Guayama, Porto Rico, celebrated for its cool, invigorating climate and the beauty of its scenery.
- Strictly speaking, the United States has no colonial policy, for the Philippine Islands and Porto Rico can scarcely be called colonies.
He determined that Cuba should not be taken over by the United States, as all Europe expected it would be, and an influential section of his own party hoped it would be, but should be given every opportunity to govern itself as an independent republic; by assuming supervision of the finances of San Domingo, he put an end to controversies in that unstable republic, which threatened to disturb the peace of Europe; and he personally inspired the body of administrative officials in the Philippines, in Porto Rico and (during American occupancy) in Cuba, who for efficiency and unselfish devotion to duty compare favourably with any similar body in the world.