In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
The varieties of coast-lines were reduced to an exact classification by Richthofen, who grouped them according to the height and slope of the land into cliff-coasts (Steilkiisten)- narrow beach coasts with cliffs, wide beach coasts with cliffs, and 1 Rumpf, in German, the language in which this distinction was first made.
Von Richthofen, Fiehrer fiir Forschungsreisende (Berlin, 1886); G.
The simple classification employed by Professor James Geikie 3 into mountains of accumulation, mountains of elevation and mountains of circumdenudation, is not considered sufficiently thorough by German geographers, who, following Richthofen, generally adopt a classification dependent on six primary divisions, each of which is subdivided.
Baron von Richthofen noticed with surprise the number of fine country seats, owned by rich men who had retired from business, scattered over the rural districts.
The present outline of the eastern coast and the nearly enclosed seas which lie between the islands and the mainland, are attributed by Richthofen chiefly to simple faulting.
Richthofen, " Ueber Gestalt and Gliederung einer Grundlinie in der Morphologie Ost-Asiens," Sitz.
It is impossible to refer to all that has been written in the Survey Reports and Gazetteers of the government of India, or in the records of the Royal Asiatic Society, or the Asiatic Society, Bengal; but amongst the more important popular works are the following: - Richthofen, " China, Japan, and Korea," vol.
Herold and du Tillet), and the text has been edited by Karl von Richthofen in the Mon.
Herold's edition (Originum ac Germanicarum antiquitatum libri, Basel, 1557), which has been reproduced by Karl von Richthofen in the Mon.
There is an edition of this code by Karl von Richthofen in the Mon.
(1873); Baron Richthofen, China (1877); J.
Drs von Richthofen and Rein discuss the subject in greater detail.
"At Chai-tang," wrote Baron von Richthofen, "I was surprised to walk over a regular succession of coal-bearing strata, the thickness of which, estimating it step by step as I proceeded gradually from the lowest to the highest strata, exceeds 7000 ft."
Ritter (Asien, ii.) was the first of modern geographers to recognize the true character of the Kuen-lun as a border range of the Tibetan plateau; and Baron von Richthofen (China, i.
Thus, one of them is named indiscriminately Nan-shan, Richthofen Range and Momoshan.
And reached Cape Richthofen, a promontory 700 ft.
D., in his Book of Roads and Provinces, quoted by Baron Richthofen in his great work on China, p. 575.
Baron von Richthofen reckoned that the digger earned from 50 to i 50 cash (i.e.