He appears to have retired from public life shortly after the death of Richelieu in 1643.
Her early years were clouded by the execution of the duc de Montmorency, her mother's only brother, for intriguing against Richelieu in 1631, and that of her mother's cousin the comte de Montmorency-Boutteville for duelling in 1635; but her parents made their peace with Richelieu, and being introduced into society in 1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hotel Rambouillet, at that time the centre of all that was learned, witty and gay in France.
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
Water communication is afforded by Lake Champlain to the south, for seven months of the year, by way of the Champlain canal, via Whitehall, New York, to Troy and the Hudson river and the Atlantic coast, and to the north by way of the Richelieu river and the Chambly canal to the St Lawrence.
Louise became maid of honour to Anne of Austria, and Richelieu sought to attract the attention of Louis XIII.
Richelieu intercepted the letters, and by omissions and falsifications succeeded in destroying their mutual confidence.
During the siege of La Rochelle he performed a mission which brought him in touch with Richelieu, who shortly afterwards nominated him intendant de justice in Beam (1631), and in 1639 summoned him to Paris with the title of counsellor of state.
In this capacity he did very useful work, and after the Restoration continued in this post at the request of the duc de Richelieu, his work being recognized by his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1820.
De Berulle et les Carmelites; Le Pre de Berulle et l'oratoire de Jesus; Le Cardinal de Berulle et Richelieu (3 vols., 1872-1876), by the Abbe M.
ARMAND JEAN DU PLESSIS DE, CARDINAL RICHELIEU (1585-1642), French statesman, was born of an ancient family of the lesser nobility of Poitou.
The original name of the family was Du Plessis, but in the 15th century a younger branch obtained by marriage the estate of Richelieu with its strong castle surrounded by the waters of the Mable, and took the name of Du Plessis de Richelieu.
The family produced not a few turbulent warriors during the Hundred Years' War, and the cardinal's father, Francois du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, began his career by killing the murderer of his elder brother and then fighting through the wars of religion, first as a favourite of Henry III., and after his death under Henry IV.
The right of preferment to that see had been given to the Richelieu family by Henry III.
In 1606, at the age of twenty-one, Richelieu was nominated bishop of Luton by Henry IV.
In the winter of 1608 Richelieu went out to his poverty-stricken little bishopric, and for the next six years devoted himself seriously to his episcopal duties.
The reign which Richelieu was to dominate so absolutely began with his exile from the court.
As this ungrateful work brought no reward, Richelieu, in spite of the earnest entreaties of the queen-mother, retired once more to his bishopric. But the king, while approving his conduct, was still suspicious of him, and he was exiled to Avignon, along with his brother and brother-in-law, on the 7th of April 1618.
The bishop of Lugon was led to believe that the king would recommend him for a cardinalate, but, if we may trust the evidence, Luynes secretly opposed the request, and it was not until after his death that Richelieu was made a cardinal by Pope Gregory XV., on the 5th of September 1622.
Richelieu seized his opportunity.
Richelieu raised many objections to such a partial realization of his ambition, but the king ended them in April 1624 by naming him as a member of his council.
For the next eighteen years the biography of Richelieu is the history of France, and to a large degree that of Europe.
Orders were given that no one should be allowed to disturb their interview, but Richelieu entered by the unguarded chapel door.
Richelieu left the presence feeling that all was lost.
But before taking further steps he retired to Versailles, then a hunting lodge, and there, listening to two of Richelieu's friends, Claude de Saint-Simon, father of the memoir writer, and Cardinal La Valette, sent for Richelieu in the evening, and while the salons of the Luxembourg were full of expectant courtiers the king was reassuring the cardinal of his continued favour and support.
The queen-mother followed the king and cardinal to Compiegne, but as she refused to be reconciled with Richelieu she was left there alone and forbidden to return to Paris.
The next summer she fled across the frontiers into the Netherlands, and Richelieu was made a duke.
Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Barwald of the 23rd of January 1631.
The dismissal of Wallenstein, which is often attributed to the work of Father Joseph, Richelieu's envoy to the diet of Regensburg in July and August of 1630, was due rather to the fears of the electors themselves, but it was of double value to Richelieu when his Swedish ally marched south.
After the treaty of Prague, in May 1635, by which the emperor was reconciled with most of the German princes, Richelieu was finally obliged to declare war, and, concluding a treaty of offensive alliance at Compiegne with Oxenstierna, and in October one at St Germain-en-Laye with Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, he proceeded himself against Spain, both in Italy and in the Netherlands.
The war opened disastrously for the French, but by 1642, when Richelieu died, his armies - risen from 12,000 men in 1621 to 150,000 in 1638 - had conquered Roussillon from Spain; they held Catalonia, which had revolted from Philip IV.
The lines of the treaty of Westphalia, six years later, were already laid down by Richelieu; and its epochal importance in European history is a measure of the genius who threw the balance of power from Habsburg to Bourbon.
Chords that Richelieu played.
The piquant comments of his platonic friend, Mademoiselle de Hautefort, upon Richelieu were relished by the king until he was informed of others said to have been made by her upon himself.
Such was the atmosphere of the court in which Richelieu had to maintain his authority.
Like all statesmen of his time, Richelieu made money out of politics.
Richelieu was anxious for literary fame, and his writings are not unworthy of him.
Many writings are attributed to Richelieu, although owing to his habit of working with substitutes and assistants it is difficult to settle how much of what passes under his name is authentic. Les Thuileries, La Grande Pastorale, Mirame, and the other plays, over whose fate he trembled as over the result of an embassy or a campaign, have long been forgotten; but a permanent interest attaches to his Memoires and correspondence: Memoire d'Armand du Plessis de Richelieu, eveque de Lucon, ecrit de sa main, l'annee 1607 ou 1610, alors qu'il meditait de paraitre d la cour, edited by Armand Baschet (1880); Histoire de la mere et du fill (i.e.
Of Marie de Medici and Louis XIII.), sometimes attributed to Mezeray, published at Amsterdam in 1730 and, under the title Histoire de la regence de reine Marie de Medicis, femme de Henry IV., at the Hague in 1743 Memoires sur la regne de Louis XIII., extending from 1610 to 1638, and of which the earlier portion is a reprint of the Histoire de la mere et du fils, published in Petitot's collection (Paris, 1823 seq.); Testament politique d'Armand du Plessis, cardinal de Richelieu (Amsterdam, 1687 seq.); Journal de 1630-31 (Paris, 1645); "Lettres, instructions diplomatiques, et papiers d'etat," published by G.
Hanotaux, Cardinal Richelieu (1893), one volume of the four then promised, an exhaustive history of the period down to 1614; and G.
D'Avenel, Richelieu et la monarchie absolue (4 vols., 1895).
Retz, who had, according to some accounts, already plotted against Richelieu, set himself to work to make the utmost political capital out of his position.
Voltaire had made, however, a useful friend in another grand seigneur, as profligate and nearly as intelligent, the duke of Richelieu, and with him he passed 1724 and the next year chiefly, recasting Mariamne (which was now successful), writing the comedy of L'Indiscret, and courting the queen, the ministers, the favourites and everybody who seemed worth.
Addressed in his hearing to Richelieu at the close of a piece in which the emperor had appeared with a transparent reference to the king.
Cardinal Richelieu himself, preceded by lesser dignitaries, condescended to visit Amyraut privately, to persuade him to kneel; but Amyraut held resolutely to his point and carried it.
Very large were the concessions made by Richelieu in his personal interviews with Amyraut; but, as with the Worcester House negotiations in England between the Church of England and nonconformists, they inevitably fell through.
At first, as minister of police he had to suppress the insurrections provoked by the ultraRoyalists (the White Terror); then, after the resignation of the duc de Richelieu, he took the actual direction of the ministry, although the nominal president was General J.
The duc de Richelieu was compelled to admit to the cabinet two of the chiefs of the Left, Villele and Corbiere.
Villele resigned within a year, but on the fall of Richelieu at the end of 1821 he became the real chief of the new cabinet, in which he was minister of finance.
Realizing his folly he abdicated on the 6th of December 1796, and retired to Sardinia, That princess, in spite of her French origin, resisted the attempts of France, then dominated by Cardinal Richelieu, to govern Savoy, but her quarrels with her brothers-in-law led to civil war, in which the latter obtained the help of Spain, and Christina that of France.
He afterwards became the confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic. He was sent on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time.