Porte- While the Spaniards were circumnavigating the in world and completing their knowledge of the coasts of geese Af rica and Central and South America, the Portuguese were actively the East.
Southern examples from Costa Rica and Veragua have the tail-coverts much narrower, and have been considered to form a distinct species, P. costaricensis.
The foreign policy of the administration at first seemed likely to emphasize independence of action, in contradistinction to that of President Wilson; the threatened war between Panama and Costa Rica was prevented by a sharp note from Secretary Hughes; the claims of the Japanese to a mandate over Yap were stoutly denied; the administration refused to follow Great Britain in resuming trade relations with Soviet Russia.
In 1711 it became a city with the name of Villa Rica, a title justified by its size and wealth.
In 1720 Villa Rica became the capital of the newly created captaincy of Minas Geraes, and in 1823 the capital of the province of the same name under the empire of Dom Pedro I.
It is found also in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Cuba and Hayti, and in Panama with another species of Castilloa, and on the W.
Muller (1877), Rica (1885), and above all that of L.
Interior of Costa Rica, Central America.
Costa Rica (El General), Central America.
A deal of study has been devoted to the cunning Tubal Cains, the surprising productions of whose handiwork have been recovered in the art provinces of Mexico and the Cordilleras, especially in Chiriqui, between Costa Rica and Colombia.
The former is found in Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; the latter in Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
COSTA RICA, a republic of Central America, bounded on the N.
Two volcanic Cordilleras or mountain chains, separated from one another by the central plateau of San Jose and Cartago, traverse the interior of Costa Rica, and form a single watershed, often precipitous on its Pacific slope, but descending more gradually towards the Atlantic, where there is a broad expanse of plain in the north-east.
From Irazu (11,200), the culminating point of the range, both oceans and the whole of Costa Rica are visible; its altitude exceeds that of Aneto, the highest point in the Pyrenees, but so gradual is its acclivity that the summit can easily be reached by a man on horseback.
Costa Rica is not differentiated from the neighbouring lands by any very, marked peculiarities of geological formation, or of plant and animal life.
Owing to the proximity of two oceans, and the varied configuration of the surface of Costa Rica, an area of a few square miles may exhibit the most striking extremes of climate; but, over the entire country, it is possible to distinguish three climatic zones - tropical, temperate and cold.
Rheumatism on the Atlantic seaboard, and malaria on both coasts, are the commonest forms of disease; but, as a whole, Costa Rica is one of the healthiest of tropical lands.
They are a quiet and inoffensive folk, who dwell in stockaded encampments, and preserve their ancestral language and customs. For an account of early Indian civilization in Costa Rica, see Central America: Archaeology.
As only 200 negroes were settled in Costa Rica when slavery was abolished in 1824, and no important increase ever took place through immigration, the black population is remarkably small, amounting only to some 1 200.
The railways are owned partly by the state, partly by the Costa Rica railway company, which, in 1904, arranged to build several branch lines through the banana districts of the Atlantic littoral.
- The name "Costa Rica," meaning "rich coast," is well deserved; for, owing to the combination of ample sunshine and moisture with a wonderfully fertile soil, almost any kind of fruit or flower can be successfully cultivated; while the vast tracts of virgin forest, which remain along the Atlantic slopes, contain an abundance of cedar, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and ebony, with fustic and other precious dye-woods.
There are three important banks, the Anglo-Costa Rican Bank, with a capital of £120,000, the Bank of Costa Rica (£20o,000), and the Commercial Bank of Costa Rica (£10o,000), founded in 1905.
Costa Rica is governed under a constitution of 1870, which, however, only came into force in 1882, and has often been modified.
- The origin of the name Costa Rica (Spanish for "Rich Coast") has been much disputed.
It is often stated that the territories to which the name is now applied were first known as Nueva Cartago, while Costa Rica was used in a wider sense to designate the whole south-western coast of the Caribbean Sea, from the supposed mineral wealth of this region.
With the rest of Central America, Costa Rica remained a.
On the 15th of September 1821 Costa Rica, with the other Central American provinces, revolted and joined the Mexican empire under the dynasty of Iturbide; but this subjection never became popular, and, on the establishment of a Mexican republic in 1823, hostilities broke out between the Conservatives, who desired to maintain the union, and the Liberals, who wished to set up an independent republic. The opposing factions met near the Ochomogo Pass; the republicans were victorious, and the seat of government was transferred from Cartago, the old capital, to San Jose, the Liberal headquarters.
From 1824 to 1839 Costa Rica joined the newly formed Republic of the United States of Central America; but the authority of the central government proved little more than nominal, and the Costa Ricans busied themselves with trade and abstained from politics.
The boundary question between Costa Rica and Nicaragua was referred to the arbitration of the president of the United States, who gave his award in 1888, confirming a treaty of 1858; further difficulties arising from the work of demarcation were settled by treaty in 1896.
The boundary between Costa Rica and Panama (then a province of Colombia) was fixed by the arbitration of the French president, who gave his award on the 15th of September 1900.
Niederlein, The Republic of Costa Rica (Philadelphia, 1898); R.
Villafranca, Costa Rica (New York, 1895); L.
Baron, Compendio geographico y estadistico de la Republica de Costa Rica (San Jose, 1894); H.
Pittier, Apuntaciones sobre el china y geographia de la Republica de Costa Rica (San Jose, 1890); P. Biolley, Costa Rica and her Future (Washington, 1889); M.
De Peralta, Costa Rica (London, 1873).
Schroeder, Costa Rica State Immigration (San Jose, 1894); Bulletins of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); British Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); U.S.A. Consular Reports (Washington); Reports of the Ministries (San Jose).
For the history of Costa Rica, see L.
Baron, Compendio de la historia de Costa Rica (San Jose, 18 94); F.
Barrantes, Elementos de historia de Costa Rica (San Jose, 1892); J.
Calvo, The Republic of Costa Rica (Chicago, 1890), gives a partisan account of local politics, trade and finance, authorized by the government.
Church's "Costa Rica," a very valuable paper in vol.
Seler, in "Der Grenzstreit zwischen den Republiken Costa Rica and Colombia," in Petermann's Mittheilungen, vol.
Maluquer, Republica de Costa Rica (Madrid, 1890).
Gerrhonotus, 8 species, in mountainous countries, from British Columbia to Costa Rica; like Diploglossus s.
The investigations made by Dr Walter Lehmann in Central America (1907-1909), prove that these Mexican elements were extended through Guatemala, Salvador, a small part of Nicaragua (the territory of the Nicaraos) and on several places in the peninsula of Nicoya (Costa Rica) amongst the autochthonous Chorotega or Mangue.
The Chorotega race had its centre in Nicaragua (Pacific coast) and at one time extended thence as far as Guanacaste (Costa Rica); at another time it extended as far as Honduras (actual department of Choluteca) and into eastern Salvador as far as the state of Chiapas in Mexico, where the Chorotega penetrated amongst the Mixe.
Mexico also took part in establishing the permanent Central American Court of Arbitra-, tion, inaugurated on the 25th of May 1908 at Cartago, Costa' Rica, under the Washington treaties of December 1907, and showed readiness to associate herself with the Government of her great northern neighbour in preserving peace among the Central American States.
GUATEMALA (sometimes incorrectly written Guatimala), a name now restricted to the republic of Guatemala and to its chief city, but formerly given to a captaincy-general of Spanish America, which included the fifteen provinces of Chiapas, Suchitepeques, Escuintla, Sonsonate, San Salvador, Vera Paz and Peten, Chiquimula, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Totonicapam, Quezaltenango, Sololá, Chimaltenango and Sacatepeques, - or, in other words, the whole of Central America (except Panama) and part of Mexico.
Honduras now joined with Salvador, and Nicaragua and Costa Rica with Guatemala.
President Zaldivar, of Salvador, had been his friend, but after the issue of the decree of union he entered into a defensive alliance with Costa Rica and Nicaragua.