Bristol, Rhode Island >>
CUMBERLAND, a township of Providence county, Rhode Island, U.S.A., in the N.E.
Rhode Island is the smallest state in the Union, having an extreme length, N.
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After the close of the war there was an influx of settlers from Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Vermont; a town was laid out on the Van der Heyden farm, and in 1789 the name of Troy was selected in town meeting; and in 1791 the town of Troy was formed from part of Rensselaerwyck.
At Lonsdale, William Blackstone (c.1595-1675), the first permanent white settler within the present limits of Rhode Island, built his residence, "Study Hall," about 1635.
In 1747, by the royal decree establishing the boundary between Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Attleborough Gore, with other territory formerly under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, was annexed to Rhode Island, and the township of Cumberland was incorporated, the name being adopted in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland.
In June 1754, in pursuance of a recommendation of the Lords of Trade, a convention of representatives of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met here for the purpose of confirming and establishing a closer league of friendship with the Iroquois and of arranging for a permanent union of the colonies.
Newport, Rhode Island >>
RHODE ISLAND, a North Atlantic state of the American Union, belonging to the New England group, and lying between 41° 18' and 42° 3' N.
The region of which Rhode Island is a part was at one time worn down to a gently rolling plain near sealevel, but has since been uplifted and somewhat dissected by stream action.
The Sakonnet river is a long bay separating Aquidneck or Rhode Island from the mainland on the E.
The Pawcatuck river is the largest stream in the western half of the state, and along the lower part of its course it forms the boundary between Rhode Island and Connecticut.
This glacial material is in the form of a till or boulder clay, but in the lowlands, and especially along Narragansett Bay, it is generally overlaid by stratified drift deposited by glacial streams. Within Narragansett Bay are the numerous islands characteristic of an area which has suffered comparatively recent depression, the largest being Rhode Island (or Aquidneck), Conanicut Island and Prudence Island.
Of these the most important is Rhode Island, 15 m.
Whaling was an established in- dustry in Rhode Island as Eearly as 1723, and in 1731 the colonial assembly provided a bounty of five shillings a barrel for whale oil, and a penny a pound for whalebone.
In 1846 about 50 whaling vessels sailed from Rhode Island ports; but by the close of the century the industry had become practically extinct.
Rhode Island's mineral wealth is relatively slight.
Is Durfee Hill, which attains an elevation of 805 ft., and is the highest point within Rhode Island.
Rhode Island has a more moderate climate than that of the northern sections of New England.
The acreage of improved farm land in Rhode Island decreased from 356,487 in 1850 to in 1900, but the value of farm property (including land with improvements, implements, machinery and live stock) increased in the same period from $19,100,640 to $26,989,189.
Manufactures.-Rhode Island is essentially a manufacturing state; of the 191,923 persons in the state engaged in gainful occupations in 1900, 101,162 (or 52.7%) were employed in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.
This machinery was operated by waterpower, then first used in the United States for the spinning of cotton thread; and from this may be dated the beginning of the factory system in Rhode Island.
Textile manufacturing by improved methods was hardly well established in Rhode Island before 1825.
Rhode Island's water powers have been its only natural resources which have aided in the development of its manufactures, and its transportation facilities have always been inadequate, because of shallow water at Providence and scanty railway communication; but the state's manufacturing enterprises are of great importance.
In 1900 Rhode Island ranked 17th among the states in the value of its manufactured products, but led all of the states in the value per capita ($430).
Rhode Island ranked first in 1900 ($13,229,313) and in 1905 ($ 1 443 1, 75 6) among the states of the United States in the value of jewelry, which was fourth in the value of the state's manufactures; second in worsted goods (1900, $33,34 1, 3 2 9; 1905, $44,477,59 6), which were first in value in the state's manufactures; and third in dyeing and finishing textiles (1900, 88,484,878; 1905, $9,981,457), which ranked fifth among the state's manufactures; in the value of cotton goods (second in rank in the state) it fell from the fourth rank in 1900 ($24,056,175) to fifth rank in 1905 ($30,628,843), when the value of Rhode Island's product was less than that of Georgia.
Transportation.-Steam railway mileage in Rhode Island increased from 68 m.
Population.-The total population of Rhode Island in 1880 was 276,531; in 1890, 345,506; in 1900, 428,556; and in 1910, 542,674.2 The increase from 1880 to 1890 was 24.9%, from 1890 to 1900 24%, and from 1900 to 1910, 26.6%.
Rhode Island in 1900 had the highest percentage of urban population of any state in the Union, 91.6% of the total population living in cities of 4000 or more inhabitants.
The public school system of Rhode Island was established in 1800, abolished in 1803, and re-established in 1828.
Before the adoption of the Federal constitution Rhode Island was badly afflicted with the paper money heresy.
The first banks organized in the state were the Providence Bank in 1791, the Bank of Rhode Island at Newport in 1795, and the Washington Bank at Westerly in 1800.
Rhode Island was founded by refugees from Massachusetts, who went there in search of religious and political freedom.
On the 13th of March 1644 the Portsmouth-Newport General Court changed the name of the island from Aquidneck to the Isle of Rhodes or Rhode Island.
The official designation for the province as a whole in the charter of 1663, therefore, was Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
The people of Rhode Island played a prominent part in the struggle for independence.
Nathanael Greene, a native of Rhode Island, was made commander of the Rhode Island militia in May 1775, and a major-general in the Continental army in August 1776, and in the latter capacity he served with ability until the close of the war.
On the 9th of August Sullivan crossed to the north end of the island of Rhode Island, but as the Frenchmen were disembarking on Conanicut Island, Lord Howe arrived with the British fleet.
Rhode Island was one of the first communities in the world to advocate religious freedom and political individualism.
Under the Articles of Confederation it was principally Rhode Island that defeated the proposal to authorize Congress to levy an impost duty of 5% mainly as a means of meeting the debts of the Central government.