Alone among French rivers, the Rhne, itself Alpine in character in its upper course, is partly fed by Alpine rivers (the Arve, the Isre and the Durance) which have their floodsin spring at the melting of the snow, and are maintained by glacierwater in summer.
The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.
Outside the southern circle lie on the west the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the basin of the Garonne, with the Pyrenees beyond, and on the east the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the valley of the Rhne, with the Alps beyond.
During the Tertiary period arms of the sea spread into France in the Paris basin from the north, in the basins of the Loire and the Garonne from the west, and in the Rhne area from the south.
N~~vre Rhne - - - 778 I Lozre.
The departments with the largest population of foreigners were Nord (191,678), in which there is a large proportion of Belgians; Bouches-du-Rhne (123,497), Alpes-Maritimes (93,554), Var (~7,4~5), Italians being numerous in these three departments; Seine (153,647), Meurthe-et-Moselle(44, 595), Pasde-Calais (21,436) and Ardennes (21,401).
U-Rhne - - 2,026 604,857 673,820 765,918
Rhne - - - 1,104 772,912 839,329
The value per acre of land, which exceeds 48 in the departments of Seine, Rhne and those fringing the north-west coast from Nord to Manche inclusive, is on the average about 29, though it drops to 16 and less in Morbihan, Landes, Basses-Pyrnes, and parts of the Alps and the central plateau.
The mulberry grows in the valleys of the Rhne and its tributaries, the lsre, the Drme, the Ardche, the Gard and the Durance, and also along the coast of the Mediterranean.
The most wooded parts of France are the mountains Loire and plateaus of the east and of the north-east, comprising Seine the pine-forests of the Vosges and Jura (including the beau- Bouch~e tiful Forest of Chaux), the Forest of Haye, the Forest of Rhne Ardennes, the Forest of Argonne, &c.; the Landes, where M rth replanting with maritime pines has transformed large areas Ardenn of marsh into forest; and the departments of Var and Vos as Arige.
With the exception of Loire, Bouches-du-Rhbne and Rhne, the chief industrial departments of France are to be found in the north and north-east of the country.
French lignite comes for the most part from the department of BOuches-du-Rhne (near Fuveau).
Pont--Mousson, Frouard, Lor Ardennes Charleville, Nouzon Sain-Bel (Rhne), manganese chiefly from Ariege and Sane-et.
The silk fabrics of France hold the first place, particularly the more expensive kinds The industry is concentrated in the departments bordering the river Rhne, the chief centres being Lyons (Rhne), Voiron (Isre), St Etienne and St Chamond (~~oire) (the two latter being especially noted for their ribbons and trimmings) and Annonay (Ardche) and other places in the departments of Am, Gard and Drme.
In the Angevin Vendee the incapable leaders let themselves be beaten at Aubiers, Beauprau and Thouars, at a time when Cathelineau was taking possession of Saumur and threatening Nantes, the capture of which would have permitted the insurgents in La Vende to join those of Brittany and receive provisions from England; Meanwhile, the remnants of the Girondin federalists were overcome by the disguised royalists, who had aroused the whole of the Rhne valley from Lyons to Marseilles, had called in the Sardinians, and handed over the fleet and the arsenal at Toulon to the English, whilst Paoli left Corsica at their disposal.
March to Rome, on the banks of the Rhne, the frontier of the Iberian and Ligurian territories.
In order to retake it Henry ceded the beautiful valley of the Sane and the Rhne to the German emperor Conrad, and henceforth the kingdom of Burgundy was, like Lorraine, to follow the fortunes of Germany.
The production of lace and guipure, occupying 112,000 persons, is carried on mainly in the towns and villages of Haute-Loire and in Vosges (Mirecourt), Rhne (Lyons), Pas-de-Calais (Calais) and Paris.