A, Fertile shoot, springing B, C, Sporophylls bearing sporangia, from the rhizome, which which in C have opened.
Plants growing from a rhizome; fruit a berry.
- Rhizome of Polygonatum multiflorum, cluding the British 4 nat.
The type-genus Botryopteris, represented in the Permo-Carboniferous of France and in both the Lower and Upper Carboniferous of Great Britain, had a rhizome, with a very simple monostelic structure, bearing spirally arranged compound leaves, with lobed pinnules, probably of a somewhat fleshy texture.
Any portion of the underground rhizome when broken off is capable of producing a new plant; hence the difficulty of eradicating them when once established.
PODOPHYLLIN, a drug obtained from the rhizome of the American mandrake or may apple, Podophyllum peltatum, an herbaceous perennial belonging to the natural order Berberidaceae, indigenous in woods in Canada and the United States.
Podophyllin is a resinous powder obtained by precipitating an alcoholic tincture of the rhizome by means of water acidulated with hydrochloric acid.
The stem in this family falls into two divisions, an underground portion bearing rhizoids and scales, the rhizome, and a leafy aerial stem forming its direct upward continuation.
As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.
The surface layer of the rhizome bears rhizoids, and its whole structure strikingly resembles that of the typical root of a vascular plant.
In Dawsonia superba, a large New Zealand moss, the hydroids of the central cylinder of the aerial stem are mixed with thick-walled stereids forming a hydrom-stereom strand somewhat like that of the rhizome in other Polytrichaceae.
Of the body is the acquirement of true roots, the nearest approach to which in the lower forms we saw in the rhizome of Polytrichaceae.
Lyallii) a polycyclic solenostele is found exactly parallel with that of the rhizome of ferns.
Metamorphosis.It has already been pointed out that each kind of member of the body may present a variety of forms. For example, a stem may be a tree-trunk, or a twining stem, or a tendril, or a thorn, or a creeping rhizome, or a tuber; a leaf may be a green foliage-leaf, or a scale protecting a bud, or a tendril, or a pitcher, or a floral leaf, either sepal, petal, stamen or carpel (sporophyll); a root may be a fibrous root, or a swollen tap-root like that of the beet or the turnip. All these various forms are organs discharging some special function, and are examples of what Wolff called modification, and Goethe metamorphosis.
IroXur, many, and r6&ov, a little foot, on account of the foot-like appearance of the rhizome and its branches.
The plants are generally perennial herbs growing from a bulb or rhizome, sometimes shrubby as in butcher's broom (Ruscus) or tree-like as in species of Dracaena, Yucca or Aloe.
The plants have a rhizome or corm, and the fruit is a capsule.
The plants generally have a rhizome bearing radical leaves, as in asphodel, rarely a stem with a tuft of leaves as in Aloe, very rarely a tuber (Eriospermum) or bulb (Bowiea).
The plants grow from a bulb or short rhizome; the inflorescence is an apparent umbel formed of several shortened monochasial cymes and subtended by a pair of large bracts.
Of the Old World; it has a short creeping rhizome, from which springs a slender, herbaceous or woody, often very much branched, erect or climbing stem, the ultimate branches of which are flattened or needle-like leaf-like structures (cladodes), the true leaves being reduced to scales or, in the climbers, forming short, hard more or less recurved spines.
7), so called from the seal-like scars on the rhizome of stems of previous seasons, the hanging flowers of which contain no honey, but are visited by bees for the pollen.
The plants have a short rhizome and narrow or lanceolate basal leaves; and they are characterized by the ovary being often half-inferior.
It may be used to denote ancient Greek culture in all its phases, and even those elements in modern civilization which are Greek in origin or in spirit; but, while Matthew Arnold made the term popular in the latter connexion as the antithesis of " Hebraism," the German historian 1 For the microscopical characters and for figures of transverse sections of the rhizome, see Lanessan, Hist.
The members of this order are generally perennial herbs growing from a corm as in Crocus and Gladiolus, or a rhizome as in Iris; more rarely, as in the Spanish iris, from a bulb.
Where the plant persists by means of a sympodial rhizome, or in Cyclamen by means of a tuber formed from the swollen hypocotyl.
The rhizome of Acorus Calamus is sometimes adulterated with that of Iris Pseudacorus, which, however, is distinguishable by its lack of odour, a stringent taste and dark colour.
In such cases they are very generally given off from just above each node (often in a circle) of the lower part of the stem or rhizome, perforating the leaf-sheaths.
The underground stem or rootstock (rhizome) of perennial grasses is usually well developed, and often forms very FIG.
- Rhizome of Bamboo.
R) is also a striking example of " definite " growth; it is much branched, the short, thick, curved branches being given off below the apex of the older ones and at right angles to them, the whole forming a series of connected arched axes, truncate at their ends, which were formerly continued into leafy culms. The rhizome is always solid, and has the usual internal structure of the monocotyledonous stem.
Other aromatic members are Andropogon Nardus, a native of India, but also cultivated, the rhizome, leaves and especially the spikelets of which contain a volatile oil, which on distillation yields the citronella oil of commerce.
They are marshor water-plants with generally a stout stem (rhizome) creeping in the mud, radical leaves and a large, much branched inflorescence.
In some species branches of the rhizome with tuberous internodes are formed, which serve as a means of vegetative reproduction.
A, Longitudinal section of the rhizome, including a node and portions of the adjoining internodes; k, septum between the two internodal cavities, hh; gg, vascular bundles; 1, vallecular canal; s, leaf-sheath.
B, Transverse section of the rhizome; g, vascular bundle; 1, vallecular canal.
In the three genera, Ophioglossum, Botrychium and Helminthostachys, there is an underground rhizome, from which one leaf or a few leaves with sheathing bases are produced annually; the roots arise in more or less definite relation to the insertion of the leaves.
Lastly, the symbiotic relation between the plant and ants is found in Ferns, the rhizome of Polypodium carnosum containing cavities inhabited by these insects.
These are ferns of considerable size, the large leaves of which are borne on a short, erect, swollen stem (Angiopteris, Marattia), or arise from a more or less horizontal rhizome (Danaea, Kaulfussia).
- These forms have a horizontal rhizome, from which simply pinnate leaves arise in Platyzoma, while Gleichenia bears compound pinnate leaves with continued apical growth.
The rhizome usually has a solid central cylinder in Gleichenia, while that of Platyzoma is tubular.
The living species have a long rhizome, from the upper surface of which the large leaves arise; these are branched in a pedate manner, each branch being pinnate.
The structure of the rhizome is complicated, a transverse section showing that the centre may be occupied by a solid stele, outside of which are two tubular steles.
The single genus Loxsoma has a tubular stele in its rhizome, which bears leaves resembling those of some Davallias.
Halophila, Enhalus and Thalassia are submerged maritime plants found on tropical coasts, mainly in the Indian and Pacific oceans; Halophila has an elongated stem rooting at the nodes; Enhalus a short, thick rhizome, clothed with black threads resembling horse-hair, the persistent hard-bast strands of the leaves; Thalassia has a creeping rooting stem with upright branches bearing crowded strap-shaped leaves in two rows.
In many Calamites there is evidence that the aerial stem sprang from a horizontal rhizome, as in the common species C. (Stylocalamites) Suckowi; in other specimens the aerial stem has an independent, rooting base.
It has been maintained by some palaeobotanists that the aerial stems of Sigillaria arose as buds on a creeping rhizome, but the evidence for this conclusion is as yet unconvincing.
The rhizome, as met with in commerce, occurs in cylindrical pieces 2 or 3 in.
The starchy matter contained in its rhizome is associated with a fragrant oil, and it is used as hair-powder.