The forest regions of Cochin-China harbour the tiger, panther, leopard, tiger-cat, ichneumon, wild boar, deer, buffalo, rhinoceros and elephant, as well as many varieties of monkeys and rats.
The longest known is Diprotodon, an animal of the size of a rhinoceros, with a dental formula of i.
The Asiatic elephant; the seladang, a bison of a larger type than the Indian gaur; two varieties of rhinoceros; the honey bear (bruang), the tapir, the sambhur (rusa); the speckled deer (kijang), three varieties of mouse-deer (napoh, plandok and kanchil); the gibbon (ungka or wawa'), the siamang, another species of anthropoid ape, the brok or coco-nut monkey, so called because it is trained by the Malays to gather the nuts from the coco-nut trees, the lotong, kra, and at least twenty other kinds of monkey; the binturong (arctictis binturong), the lemur; the Asiatic tiger, the black panther, the leopard, the large wild cat (harimau akar), several varieties of jungle cat; the wild boar, the wild dog; the flying squirrel,.
The valley between Incisa and Arezzo contains accumulations of fossil bones of the deer, elephant, rhinoceros, mastodon, hippopotamus, bear, tiger, and more.
In these forests are found the two-horned rhinoceros, the elephant, lion, panther, numerous apes and antelopes, while the crocodile and hippopotamus frequent the rivers.
The bones of Pleistocene mammals, the rhinoceros, mammoth, bison, hyaena, &c., have been found at numerous places, often in caves and fissures in the limestones, e.g.
The palaeotheres, which range in size from that of a pig to that of a small rhinoceros, are now regarded as representing a family, Palaeotheriidae, nearly related to the horsetribe, and having, in fact, probably originated from the same ancestral stock, namely, Hyracotherium of the Lower Eocene (see Equidae).
The bones of the bear, horse, rhinoceros, lion, elephant, hyena and of many birds and small rodents were unearthed.
The black or double-horned rhinoceros, common in central Ogaden; leopards, abundant in many districts, and daring - they have given their name to the Webi Shebeli (" River of the Leopards "); panthers; spotted and striped hyenas (the latter rare); foxes, jackals, badgers and wild dogs; giraffes and a great variety of antelopes.
B, Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sumatrensis), X g.
Nearly related is the extinct family Lophiodontidae (inclusive of the American Helaletidae), in which both the upper and lower first premolar may be absent, while the upper molars present a more rhinoceros-like form, owing to the lateral compression and consequent lengthening of the outer columns, of which the hinder is bent somewhat inwards and is more or less concave externally, thus forming a more complete outer wall.
Rhinoceros Group. - The last section of the Perissodactyla is that of the Rhinocerotoidea, represented by the modern rhinoceroses and their extinct allies.
A B B, Rhinoceros sondaicus.
Considerable difference of opinion exists with regard to the best classification of the family, some authorities including most of the species in the typical genus Rhinoceros, while others recognize quite a number of sub-families and still more genera.
To this group belongs the extinct European and Asiatic woolly rhinoceros, Rhinoceros (Diceros) antiquitatis, of Pleistocene age, of which the frozen bodies are sometimes found in Siberia, and R.
Finally the Great Indian rhinoceros R.
Palaeindicus, represent Rhinoceros proper, in which front teeth are present, but there is only one horn.
(See Rhinoceros.) The subfamily Elasmotheriinae is represented only by the huge E.
Thomas, "Notes on the Type Specimen of Rhinoceros lasiotis, with Remarks on the Generic Position of the Living Species of Rhinoceros," Proc. Zool.
The wild animals of Cambodia include the elephant, which is also domesticated, the rhinoceros, buffalo and some species of wild ox; also the tiger, panther, leopard and honey-bear.
7raXat6s, old, and Mos, stone), in anthropology, the characteristic epithet of the Drift or early Stone Age when Man shared the possession of Europe with the mammoth, the cave-bear, the woolly-haired rhinoceros and other extinct animals.
Among the wild animals found in the mountains are elephant, rhinoceros, bison and various kinds of feathered game.
If the Vryheid district be excluded, the lion and rhinoceros may be added to this list; and the Vryheid district belongs geographically to Zululand.
When first entered by white men the Transvaal abounded in big game, the lion, leopard, elephant, giraffe, zebra and rhinoceros being very numerous, while the hippopotamus and crocodile were found in all the rivers.
In stature they range from the size of a hare to that of a rhinoceros; and their horns vary in size and shape from the small and simple spikes of the oribi and duiker antlers to the enormous and variously shaped structures borne respectively by buffaloes, wild sheep and kudu and other large antelopes.
RHINOCEROS, the designation for such perissodactyle (odd-toed) ungulate mammals as carry one or more horns on the head, and their extinct relatives (see Perissodactyla).
The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), the largest of the Asiatic forms, is the most widely known, from its being exhibited in zoological gardens.
A famous rhinoceros presented to the Zoological Society of London in July 1864 lived till December 1904.
The first rhinoceros seen alive in Europe since the time when these animals, in common with nearly all the large remarkable beasts of both Africa and Asia, were exhibited in the Roman shows, was of this species.
- Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).
- Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus).
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is distinguished by its smaller size, and a different arrangement of the skin-folds (as may be seen by comparing figs.
This group or genus is represented at the present day only by the Sumatran rhinoceros, Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus) sumatrensis, with its sub-species.
- Black or common African Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros (Diceros) bicornis).
The black rhinoceros (Rhinoceros (Diceros) bicornis) is the smaller of the two, and has a pointed prehensile upper lip. It ranges through the wooded and watered districts of Africa, from Abyssinia in the north to the Cape Colony, but its numbers are yearly diminishing, owing to the opening up of the country.
The black rhinoceros is more rarely seen in menageries in Europe than either of the Asiatic species, but one lived in the gardens of the London Zoological Society from 1868-1891.
Lastly we have the white - Burchell's, or square-mouthedrhinoceros (Rhinoceros (Diceros) simus), the largest of the five, and differing from the other species in having a square truncated upper lip. In conformity with the structure of the mouth, this species lives entirely by browsing on grass, and is therefore more partial to open countries or districts where there are broad grassy valleys between the tracts of bush.
C. Selous gives the following description of its habits: "The square-mouthed rhinoceros is a huge, ungainly looking beast, with a disproportionately large head, a large male standing 6 ft.
Their sight is very bad; but they are quick of hearing, and their scent is very keen; they are, too, often accompanied by rhinoceros birds, which, by running about their heads, flapping their wings, and screeching at the same time, frequently give them notice of the approach of danger.
When either walking or running, the square-mouthed rhinoceros holds its head very low, its nose nearly touching the ground.
From March to August) the square-mouthed rhinoceros is usually very fat; and its meat is then most excellent, being something like beef, but yet having a peculiar flavour of its own.
East Africa is rich in all kinds of antelope, and the elephant, rhinoceros and hippopotamus are still plentiful in parts.
From Megatherium these animals, which rivalled the Indian rhinoceros in bulk, differ in the shape of their cheek-teeth; these (five above and four below) being much smaller, with an ovate section, and a cupped instead of a ridged crown-surface, thus resembling those of the true sloths.
The elephant, giraffe, lion, leopard, hyena, zebra, buffalo, gnu, quagga, kudu, eland and many other kinds of antelope roamed the plains; the rhinoceros, hippopotamus and crocodile lived in or frequented the rivers, and ostriches and baboons were numerous.
Thick, evidently relics from the Ice Age, covered by an upper layer of Post-Tertiary deposits containing numbers of perfectly wellpreserved mammoth remains, rhinoceros, Ovibos, and bones of the horse, reindeer, American stag, antelope, saiga and even the tiger.
Similarly, in the Asiatic islands are found the great mammals of the continent - the elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, anthropoid ape, &c., which are wanting in the Australian region, with which the eastern part of the archipelago is associated.
All these writers attacked the problem of descent, and published preliminary phylogenies of such animals as the horse, rhinoceros and elephant, which time has proved to be of only general value and not at all comparable to the exact phylogenetic series which were being established by invertebrate palaeontologists.
The hind-foot is very like that of a rhinoceros, having three welldeveloped toes.
The stomach is formed upon much the same principle as that of the horse or rhinoceros, but is more elongated transversely and divided by a constriction into two cavities - a large left cul de sac, lined by a very dense white epithelium, and a right pyloric cavity, with a thick, soft, vascular lining.
The Pachy- dermata are strongly characteristic of the Sumatran fauna: not only are the rhinoceros (Rh.