The " nandu " or American ostrich (Rhea americans), inhabiting the pampas and open plains of the Chaco, has in Patagonia a smaller counterpart (Rhea Darwinii), which is never seen north of the Rio Negro.
Of birds the number of species greatly exceeds that of the mammals, including the rhea of the pampas and condor of the Andes, and the tiny, brilliant-hued humming-birds of the tropical North.
The emu corresponds with the African and Arabian ostrich, the rhea of South America, and the cassowary of the Moluccas and New Guinea.
It occurs in two different forms. In the Ratitae, except Rhea, it consists mainly of a right and left united half (corpora fibrosa), with a deep longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side, and much resembles the same organ in crocodiles and tortoises.
Another type exists in Rhea and in the Anseriformes, greatly specialized by being spirally twisted and partly reversible like the finger of a glove.
All the existing Ratitae (with the exception of the ostriches of Africa and South America, belonging to the genera Struthio and Rhea, and comprising at most but five species) are found in Austrogaea and nowhere else.
Birds which are restricted to, probably indigenous of the region: Rhea; Palamedea and Chauna, the screamers; Tinami; Psophia, Dicholophus, Eurypyga, Heliornis of the Gruiform assembly; Thinocorys and Attagis; Cracidae; Opisthocomus; of parrots Ara and Conurus with their allies; Monotidae, incl.
A little armadillo, the mulita, is the living representative of the antediluvian giants Mylodon, Megatherium, &c. The ostrich-Rhea americana-roams everywhere in the plains; and there are a few specimens of the vulture tribe, a native crow (lean, tall and ruffed), partridges and quails.
DEMETER, in Greek mythology, daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus, goddess of agriculture and civilized life.
In this wider sense Demeter is akin to Ge, with whom she has several epithets in common, and is sometimes identified with Rhea-Cybele; thus Pindar speaks of Demeter xaXKoKparos (" brass-rattling "), an epithet obviously more suitable to the Asiatic than to the Greek earth-goddess.
One part of her religious being survives in that of the later Rhea, another in that of Aphrodite, one of whose epithets, Ariadne (= the exceeding holy), takes us back to the earliest Cnossian tradition.
It is noteworthy that whereas, in Greece proper, Zeus attains a supreme position, the old superiority of the Mother Goddess is still visible in the Cretan traditions of Rhea and Dictynna and the infant Zeus.
There is no evidence, so far as we can see, of his having been aware of Merrem's views; but like that anatomist he without hesitation divided the class into, two great " coupes," to which he gave, however, no other names than " Oiseaux normaux " and" Oiseaux anomaux "-exactly corresponding with his predecessor's Carinatae and Ratitae-and, moreover, he had a great advantage in founding these groups, since he had discovered, apparently from his own investigations, that the mode of ossification in each was distinct; for hitherto the statement of there being five centres of ossification in every bird's sternum seems to have been accepted as a general truth, without contradiction, whereas in the ostrich and the rhea, at any rate, L'Herminier found that there were but two such primitive points, 3 and from analogy 1 Their value was, however, understood by Gloger, who in 1834, as will presently be seen, expressed his regret at not being able to use them.
Instead of recognizing, as before, a subclass in the Ratitae of Merrem, Nitzsch now reduced them to the rank of an order under the name " Platysternae," placing them between the " Gallinaceae " and " Grallae," though admitting that in their pterylosis they differ from all other birds, in ways that he is at great pains to describe, in each of the four genera examined by him - Struthio, Rhea, Dromaeus and Casuarius.
A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.
- lv.) found vestiges of a keel in a young rhea, and apteria in the embryonic ostrich, and she concluded that they were descendants of birds which originally possessed the power of flight.
The range in size is a wide one - from the tiny humming-bird to the ema, rhea, or American ostrich.
Other tales said the stone was the one given by Rhea to Cronus as a substitute for Zeus.
Quite distinct was the Idaean Hercules, a Cretan Dactyl connected with the cult of Rhea or Cybele.
But before this grouping had recommended itself to the Romans, with their legend of Mars and Rhea Silvia, the Greek Ares had again become under Macedonian influence a bearded, armed and powerful god.
Indeed the likeness of the Tinamou's bill to that of the Rhea was remarked in 1811 by Illiger.
POSEIDON, in Greek mythology, god of the sea and of water generally, son of Cronus and Rhea, and brother of Zeus and Pluto.
Cassini discovered Saturn's fifth satellite (Rhea) in 1672 with a telescope of 35 ft., and the third and fourth satellites in 1684 with telescopes made by Campani of looand 136-ft.
Korea produces all cereals and root crops except the tropical, along with cotton, tobacco, a species of the Rhea plant used for making grass-cloth, and the Brousonettia papyrifera.
HESTIA, in Greek mythology, the "fire-goddess," daughter of Cronus and Rhea, the goddess of hearth and home.
In South America another large Ratite bird, the rhea, is called ostrich; it can be distinguished at once from the true ostrich by its possession of three toes.
The high sierras are frequented by condors and eagles of the largest size, and the whole country by the common vulture, while the American ostrich (Rhea americanus) and a species of large stork (the bata or jaburu, Mycteria americans; maximum height, 8 ft.; spread of wings, 8 ft.
In the main island of Tierra del Fuego, the low-lying plains with their rich growth of tall herbage are frequented by the rhea, guanaco and other animals common to the adjoining mainland.
RHEA, a goddess of the Greeks known in mythology as the daughter of Uranus and Gaia, the sister and consort of Kronos, and the mother of Zeus.
These attendants afterwards became the bodyguard of Zeus and the priests of Rhea, and performed ceremonies in her honour.
In historic times the resemblances between Rhea and the Asiatic Great Mother, Phrygian Cybele, were so noticeable that the Greeks accounted for them by regarding the latter as only their own Rhea, who had deserted her original home in Crete and fled to the mountain wilds of Asia Minor to escape the persecution of Kronos (Strabo 469, 12).
Rhea (Goddess) >>
It is conjectured that the Amazons were originally the temple-servants and priestesses (hierodulae) of this goddess; and that the removal of the breast corresponded with the self-mutilation of the galli, or priests, of Rhea Cybele.
Another famous stone was the effigy of Rhea Cybele, the holy stone of Pessinus, black and of irregular form, which was brought to Rome in 204 B.C. and placed in the mouth of the statue of the goddess.
Campani, with which he discovered in 1671 Iapetus, the ninth in distance of Saturn's family of satellites; Rhea was detected in 1672 with a glass by the same maker of 34-ft.
RHEA, the name given in 1752 by P. H.
The resemblance of the rhea to the ostrich (q.v.) was at once perceived, but the differences between them are also very evident.
The feathers of the rhea have a considerable market value, and for the purpose of trade in them it is annually killed by thousands, so that' its total extinction as a wild animal is probably only a question of time.
In England the Report of the Zoological Society for 1833 announced the rhea as having been exhibited for the first time in its gardens during the preceding twelvemonth.
Though considerably smaller than the ostrich, and wanting its fine plumes, the rhea in general aspect far more resembles that bird than the other Ratitae.
In the course of the memorable voyage of the "Beagle," C. Darwin came to hear of another kind of rhea, called by his informants Avestruz petise, and at Port Desire on the east coast of Patagonia he obtained an example of it, the imperfect skin of which enabled J.
Rhea darwini differs in several well-marked characters from the earlier known R.
Forbes (Ibis, 1881, pp. 360, 361) to inhabit the dry and open "sertoes" of north-eastern Brazil, a discovery the more interesting since it was in that part of the country that Marcgrav and Piso became acquainted with a bird of this kind, though the existence of any species of rhea in the district had been long overlooked by or unknown to succeeding travellers.
" Three brethren are we, and sons of Cronus, sons whom Rhea bare, even Zeus and myself, and Hades is the third, the ruler of the people in the underworld.
They are Ocean, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys and the youngest, Cronus, " and he hated his glorious father."
The chief stock of the divine species was continued by the marriage of Rhea (probably another form of the Earth) with Cronus.
At last Rhea bore Zeus, and gave Cronus a stone in swaddling bands, which he disposed of in the usual way.
The gods assume animal forms: Cronus becomes a horse, Rhea a mare; Zeus begets separate families of men in the shape of a bull, an ant, a serpent, a swan.
The wife, regarding union with her producer as incest, fled from his embraces as Nemesis did from those of Zeus, and Rhea from Cronus, assuming various animal disguises.