In his later book, Dioptrice (1611), he fully discusses refraction and the use of lenses, showing the action of the double convex lens in the camera obscura, with the principles which regulate its use and the reason of the reversal of the image.
The multiplication by 3 and the reversal of direction.
On the other hand it is not necessary to reset the telescope after each reversal of the segments.4 When Bessel ordered the Konigsberg heliometer, he was anxious to have the segments made to move in cylindrical slides, of which the radius should be equal to the focal length of the object-glass.
For shallow water greater precision and certainty are obtained by using a lever actuated by a weight slipped down the line to cause the reversal, as in the patterns of Rung, Mill and others.
The anticipated reversal was duly found by Chree, the critical point corresponding, under the moderate stress employed, to a field of about 120 units.
The reign began well, it is true, notably in the reversal of the narrow ecclesiastical policy of Frederick William III.
Thomson, who, from the results of Bidwell's observations on the magnetic deformation of cobalt, was led to expect that that metal would exhibit a reversal opposite in character to the effect observed in iron.
In the retrial of the General Fitz John Porter case he obtained a reversal of the decision of the original courtmartial.
Peter's foreign policy was the absolute reversal of the policy of his predecessor.
For the most part, the Arab tribes have been reluctant to avail themselves of their new powers, and where they have done so the hasty reversal of the traditions of centuries has proved demoralizing to the natives, without any sufficient equivalent in the way of healthy French colonization.
In 1840 brought a pacific reversal of the Prussian policy, sometimes judged more benevolent than wise.
The interval between this war and the Seven Years' War (1756) saw that great reversal of alliances which is sometimes called the "Diplomatic Revolution"; whereby France repudiated the alliance of Frederick the Great and joined hands with her old enemy Austria.
Charles's subsequent endeavour, in stress of circumstances, to gain a friend by dividing his Polish conquests with the aspiring elector of Brandenburg was a reversal of his original policy and only resulted in the establishment on the southern confines of Sweden of a new rival almost as dangerous as Denmark, her ancient rival in the west.
It is nearly allied to the larger Asiatic buffaloes, showing the same reversal of the direction of the hair on the back.
The shahs grandmother, by feigning herself sick and dependent upon wine only for cure, obtained reversal of the edict.
The accession of his widow Salome Alexandra (78-69) witnessed a complete reversal of the policy pursued by Jannaeus, for she chose to rule in accordance with the ideals of the Pharisees.
In addition to the bacterial actions which result in the oxidization of ammonia to nitrous acid, and of the latter to nitric acid, the reversal of such processes is also brought about by numerous bacteria in the soil, rivers, &c. Warington showed some time ago that many species are able to reduce nitrates to nitrites, and such reduction is now known to occur very widely in nature.
As the tip of the wing is mid-way between its margins, a line between the continuous and dotted lines gives the figure-of-8 made by the tip. The arrows indicate the reversal of the planes of the wing, and show how the down and up strokes cross each other.
A few of the lines show a double reversal, the dark absorption line being greatly increased in breadth and showing a bright emission line in its centre.
Nevertheless there was no reversal of what had been done, only a check to the rate of progress.
These irregularities induced the House of Lords to reverse the judgment, and its reversal did much to prevent mischief.
Hence for sending both a dot and a dash, reverse currents of short duration are sent through the line, but the interval between the reversal is three times as great for the dash as for the dot.
He was not released until the accession of Mary, parliament restoring his dukedom on his petition for reversal of the attainder.
It was reserved for the third Duma, after the revolution, to begin the reversal of this process.'
When in July of that year Rockingham gave place to Chatham, Conway retained his office; and when Chatham became incapacitated by illness he tamely acquiesced in Townshend's reversal of the American policy which he himself had so actively furthered in the previous administration.
On the other hand he speaks of the great anti-Teuton emperor Justinian, and of his reversal of the German conquests of the 5th century, in language which would certainly have grated on the ears of Totila and his heroes.
Triforis, Physa, Clausilia are examples of sinistral Gastropods, but reversal also occurs as an individual variation among forms normally dextral.
Burr.- p T 9 pl.y ped.g: reversal of the cleavage planes in sinistral as compared with dextral forms. The facts, however, strongly suggest that the original cause of the torsion was the weight of the exogastric shell and visceral hump, which in an animal creeping on its ventral surface necessarily fell over to one side.
The year 461 marks the reversal of Athenian policy at home and abroad.
After a few repetitions of the reversal, the process becomes strictly cyclic, the upward and downward curves always following with precision the paths indicated in the figure.
Hopkinson pointed out that the greatest dissipation of energy which can be caused by a to-and-fro reversal is approximately represented by Coercive force X maximum induction fir.
After pointing out that, since the magnetization of the metal is the quantity really concerned, W is more appropriately expressed in terms of I, the magnetic moment per unit of volume, than of B, he suggests an experiment to determine whether the mechanical work required to effect the complete magnetic reversal i Phil.
But a balance may still be obtained by altering the effective number of turns in the test coil, and thus increasing or decreasing the magnetizing force acting on the test rod, till the induction in the two rods is the same, a condition which is fulfilled when reversal of the current has no effect on the compass needle.
Villari in 1868 that the magnetic susceptibility of an iron wire was increased by stretching when the magnetization was below a certain value, but diminished when that value was exceeded; this phenomenon has been termed by Lord Kelvin, who discovered it independently, the " Villari reversal," the value of the magnetization for which stretching by a given load produces no effect being known as the " Villari critical point " for that load.
The Villari critical point for aegiven sample of iron is reached with a smaller magnetizing force when the stretching load is great than when it is small; the reversal also occurs with smaller loads and with weaker fields when the iron is soft than when it is hard.
There were reasons for believing that no Villari reversal would be found in nickel.
Heydweiller, 2 which appeared to indicate a reversal in weak fields (corresponding to I= 5, or thereabouts), have been shown by Honda and Shimizu to be vitiated by the fact that his specimen was not initially in a magnetically neutral state; they found that when the applied field had the same direction as that of the permanent magnetization, Heydweiller's fallacious results were easily obtained; but if the field were applied in the direction opposite to that of the permanent magnetization, or if, as should rightly be the case, there were no permanent magnetization at all, then there was no indication of any Villari reversal.
In opposition to this Nominalistic view, which implied the reversal of his whole position, William may have meant to say that, instead of the universal being multiplied, it is rather the individuals which are reduced to unity in the universal.
His dispute with George Onslow, member for Surrey, who at first supported and then threw over Wilkes for place, culminated in a civil action, ultimately decided, after the reversal of a verdict which had been obtained through the charge of Lord Mansfield, in Horne's favour, and in the loss by his opponent of his seat in parliament.
In the graphic method of representation the sign - may be taken as denoting a reversal of direction, so that, if + 3 represents a length of 3 units measured in one direction,-3 represents a length of 3 units measured in the other direction.
At the end of the stroke, when his platform comes opposite to a corresponding platform on the other rod, he steps over on to the latter during the instant of rest prior to the reversal of the stroke, descends with the second rod on this down stroke, steps again at the proper time to a platform of the first rod and so on to the bottom.
The difficulty of extinguishing an underground fire in this way is, however, very great, as on account of the poisonous products of combustion it is impossible to attack it except in the rear, and even there the men are always in great danger from the reversal of the FIG.
Risner, who died in 1580, also in his Opticae (1606) very clearly explained the reversal of the images of the simple camera obscura.
But if so it ceases to be available as evidence of a coming reversal of the dominant process.
If mechanical work or kinetic energy is directly converted into heat by friction, reversal of the motion does not restore the energy so converted.
Of these methods Bessel generally employed the first because of its simplicity, notwithstanding that it involved a resetting of the right ascension and declination of the axis of the tube with each reversal of the segments.
This amazing reversal of policy was procured by the intrigues of Catholic diplomatists and German French Jesuits, conveyed to Paris by Prince de la Tour d'Auvergne.
It may also be thought of as retributive, as a reversal of present conditions so that the miserable are comforted, and the prosperous laid low, or as a reward or punishment for good or evil desert here.
Manteuffel and his policy were associated in the regents mind with the humiliation of Olmtitz, and the dismissal of the ministry symbolized the reversal of this policy.
It opens with a startling reversal of the common estimates of happiness and misery.
The crown after the Mutiny; and its reversal has led to the native princes being amongst the most loyal subjects of the British government.
One geometrical interpretation of the negative sign of algebra was early seen to be mere reversal of direction along a line.
For the reversal of either factor must, by (b), change its sign.
The representatives of France and Great Britain made every effort to secure a reversal of this fatal step; but, while they were threatening and promising, Russia was acting, and on the 10th of February a Russian squadron entered the Bosporus.
The sudden reversal of that long process is therefore a very remarkable occurrence.
If we imagine the current in the conductor to be instantaneously reversed in direction, the magnetic force surrounding it would not be instantly reversed everywhere in direction, but the reversal would be propagated outwards through space with a certain velocity which Maxwell showed was inversely as the square root of the product of the magnetic permeability and the dielectric constant or specific inductive capacity of the medium.
Not only do the cases, so far as they are known, support Bacon's plea of innocence, but it is remarkable that no attempt at a reversal of any of his numerous decrees appears to have been successful.
This reversal of policy led to a Christian persecution and a new war with Rome.
Pombal's dismissal, brought about by the influence of the queen-mother Mariana Victoria, Maria L, did not involve an immediate reversal of his policy.
2 Then came the Kaffir War of 1834-1835, the reversal by the home government of the statesmanlike settlement of Sir Benjamin D'Urban, and the refusal of any compensation to the sufferers from the war, whose losses amounted to some £500,000.
Fred asked, in a reversal of rolls.
With the gradual disuse of the old barbarous punishments so universal in medieval times came also a reversal of opinion as to the magnitude of the crime involved in killing a child not yet born.