Lead ores are smelted in the reverberatory furnace, the ore-hearth, and the blast-furnace.
Three types of reverberatory practice are in vogue-the English, Carinthian and Silesian.
In Wales and the south of England the process is conducted in a reverberatory furnace, the sole of which is paved with slags from previous operations, and has a depression in the middle where the metal formed collects to be let off by a tap-hole.
The loss in lead by the combined reverberatory and blast-furnace treatment is only 3.2%.
In Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham and latterly the United States, the reverberatory furnace is used only for roasting the ore, and the oxidized ore is then reduced by fusion in a low, square blastfurnace (a "Scottish hearth furnace") lined with cast iron, as is also the inclined sole-plate which is made to project beyond the furnace, the outside portion (the "work-stone") being provided with grooves guiding any molten metal that may be placed on the "stone" into a cast iron pot; the "tuyere" for the introduction of the wind was, in the earlier types, about half way down the furnace.
The leading reverberatory furnace for roasting lead-bearing sulphide ores has a level hearth 14-16 ft.
The lead produced in the reverberatory furnace and the ore-hearth is of a higher grade than that produced in the blast-furnace, as the ores treated are purer and richer, and the reducing action is less powerful.
Liquation, if not followed by poling, is carried on as a rule in a reverberatory furnace with an oblong, slightly trough-shaped inclined hearth; if the lead is to be poled it is usually melted down in a cast-iron kettle.
If the lead is to be liquated and then brought to a bright-red heat, both operations are carried on in the same reverberatory furnace.
The spelter used must therefore be of a good grade, and the lead is usually first refined in a reverberatory furnace (the softening furnace).
By beginning with a small amount The reverberatory furnace commonly used for cupelling goes by the name of the English cupelling furnace.
The latest cupelling furnaces have the general form of a reverberatory copper-smelting furnace.
The operation is carried on in a reverberatory furnace or in a kettle.
In the reverberatory furnace, similar to the one used in softening, the lead is brought to a brightred heat and air allowed to have free access.
The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.
From the reverberatory furnace or the kettle the refined lead is siphoned off into a storage (market) kettle after it has cooled somewhat, and from this it is siphoned off into moulds placed in a semicircle on the floor.
Either in the shaft furnace or the reverberatory; the former is the better suited to stream tin, the latter to lode tin, but either ore can be smelted in either way, although reverberatory practice yields a purer metal.
In Europe, Australasia and one large works at Singapore it has been practically replaced by the reverberatory furnace process, first introduced into Cornwall about the year 1700.
In this process the purified ore is mixed with about one-fifth of its weight of a noncaking coal or anthracite smalls, the mixture being moistened to prevent it from being blown off by the draught, and is then fused on the sole of a reverberatory furnace for five or six hours.
In Colorado the pyritic ores containing gold and silver in association with copper are smelted in reverberatory furnaces for regulus, which, when desilverized by Ziervogel's method, leaves a residue containing 20 or 30 oz.
The calcination, or roasting, is conducted at a low temperature in some form of reverberatory furnace.
Yd., are removed monthly, their gold content being from 0.5 to 1 0%, and after folding are melted in reverberatory furnaces to ingots containing 2 to 4% of gold.
Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver.
Potassium carbonate, K 2 CO 3, popularly known as "potashes," was originally obtained in countries where wood was cheap by lixiviating wood ashes in wooden tubs, evaporating the solution to dryness in iron pots and calcining the residue; in more recent practice the calcination is carried out in reverberatory furnaces.
Grey iron castings are made by remelting the pig iron either in a small shaft of " cupola " furnace, or in a reverberatory or " air " furnace, with very little change of chemical composition, and then casting it directly into suitable moulds, usually of either " baked," i.e.
The uncovered basin-like bottom of a reverberatory furnace, under conditions of which fig.
The latter was formerly often constructed as a reverberatory furnace, which is easy to build and to work, but the hydrochloric acid given off here, being mixed with the products of the combustion of the fuel, cannot be condensed to strong acid and is partly, if not entirely, wasted.
It is called a " black-ash " furnace, and belongs to the class of reverberatory furnaces.
The drained crystals are dried and heated to redness in a reverberatory furnace; when " finished," the mass is of an impure white or light yellow colour and is sold as ordinary " soda-ash."
When the former is used it is roasted with calcium sulphate or alkali waste to form a matte which is then blown in a Bessemer converter or heated in a reverberatory furnace with a siliceous flux with the object of forming a rich nickel sulphide.
Roasted ores may be smelted in reverberatory furnaces (English process), or in blast-furnaces (German or Swedish process).
The matte is treated either in reverberatory furnaces (English process), in blast furnaces (German process), or in converters (Bessemer process).
The " English process " is made up of the following operations: (i) calcination; (2) smelting in reverberatory furnaces to form the matte; (3) roasting the matte; and (4) subsequent smelting in reverberatory furnaces to fineor white-metal; (5) treating the fine-metal in reverberatory furnaces to coarseor blistercopper, either with or without previous calcination; (6) refining of the coarse-copper.
The " AngloGerman Process " is a combination of the two preceding, and consists in smelting the calcined ores in shaft furnaces, concentrating the matte in reverberatory furnaces, and smelting to coarse-metal in either.
The process is effected either in heaps, stalls, shaft furnaces, reverberatory furnaces or muffle furnaces.
Reverberatory roasting does not admit of the utilization of the waste gases, and requires fine ores and much labour and fuel; it has, however, the advantage of being rapid.
Reverberatory furnaces of three types are employed in calcining copper ores: (I) fixed furnaces, with either hand or mechanical rabbling; (2) furnaces with movable beds; (3) furnaces with rotating working chambers.
Blake's and Brunton's furnaces are reverberatory furnaces with a movable bed.
The ore is under better control than is possible with the continuous feed and discharge, and when sufficiently roasted can be passed red-hot to the reverberatory furnace.
The M`Dougall-Herreshoff, working on ores of over 30% of sulphur, requires no fuel; but in furnaces of the reverberatory type fuel must be used, as an excess of air enters through the slotted sides and the hinged doors which open and shut frequently to permit of the passage of the rakes.
In reverberatory furnaces it is smelted by fuel in a fireplace, separate from the ore, and in cupolas the fuel, generally coke, is in direct contact with the ore.
When Swansea was the centre of the copper-smelting industry in Europe, many varieties of ores from different mines were smelted in the same furnaces, and the Welsh reverberatory furnaces were used.
In America the usual method is to roast ores or concentrates so that the matte yielded by either the reverberatory or cupola furnace will run from 45 to 50% in copper, and then to transfer to the Bessemer converter, which blows it up to 99%.
But even when the old type of reverberatory is preferred, as at the Argo works, at Denver, where rich goldand silver-bearing copper matte is made, the growth of the furnace in size has been steady.
That from the first blow contains between 1% and 2% of copper, and is usually poured from ladles operated by an electric crane into a reverberatory, or into the settling well of the cupola.
The conversion of the sulphide into oxide is adopted where the Douglas-Hunt process is employed, or where hydrochloric or sulphuric acids are cheap. The calcination is effected in reverberatory furnaces, or in muffle furnaces, if the sulphur is to be recovered.
A similar operation is conducted when arsenic is present; basic-lined reverberatory furnaces have been used for the same purpose.
Barium chloride, BaCl 2.2H 2 O, can be obtained by dissolving witherite in dilute hydrochloric acid, and also from heavy spar by ignition in a reverberatory furnace with a mixture of coal, limestone and calcium chloride, the barium chloride being extracted from the fused mass by water, leaving a residue of insoluble calcium sulphide.
The supply of borax is, however, mainly derived from the boric acid of Tuscany, which is fused in a reverberatory furnace with half its weight of sodium carbonate, and the mass after cooling is extracted with warm water.
The roasting is carried on in hand and mechanical reverberatory furnaces, and occasionally in muffle-furnaces.