Lead ores are smelted in the reverberatory furnace, the ore-hearth, and the blast-furnace.
Three types of reverberatory practice are in vogue-the English, Carinthian and Silesian.
In Wales and the south of England the process is conducted in a reverberatory furnace, the sole of which is paved with slags from previous operations, and has a depression in the middle where the metal formed collects to be let off by a tap-hole.
The loss in lead by the combined reverberatory and blast-furnace treatment is only 3.2%.
In Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham and latterly the United States, the reverberatory furnace is used only for roasting the ore, and the oxidized ore is then reduced by fusion in a low, square blastfurnace (a "Scottish hearth furnace") lined with cast iron, as is also the inclined sole-plate which is made to project beyond the furnace, the outside portion (the "work-stone") being provided with grooves guiding any molten metal that may be placed on the "stone" into a cast iron pot; the "tuyere" for the introduction of the wind was, in the earlier types, about half way down the furnace.
The leading reverberatory furnace for roasting lead-bearing sulphide ores has a level hearth 14-16 ft.
The lead produced in the reverberatory furnace and the ore-hearth is of a higher grade than that produced in the blast-furnace, as the ores treated are purer and richer, and the reducing action is less powerful.
Liquation, if not followed by poling, is carried on as a rule in a reverberatory furnace with an oblong, slightly trough-shaped inclined hearth; if the lead is to be poled it is usually melted down in a cast-iron kettle.
If the lead is to be liquated and then brought to a bright-red heat, both operations are carried on in the same reverberatory furnace.
The spelter used must therefore be of a good grade, and the lead is usually first refined in a reverberatory furnace (the softening furnace).
By beginning with a small amount The reverberatory furnace commonly used for cupelling goes by the name of the English cupelling furnace.
The latest cupelling furnaces have the general form of a reverberatory copper-smelting furnace.
The operation is carried on in a reverberatory furnace or in a kettle.
In the reverberatory furnace, similar to the one used in softening, the lead is brought to a brightred heat and air allowed to have free access.
The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.
From the reverberatory furnace or the kettle the refined lead is siphoned off into a storage (market) kettle after it has cooled somewhat, and from this it is siphoned off into moulds placed in a semicircle on the floor.
Either in the shaft furnace or the reverberatory; the former is the better suited to stream tin, the latter to lode tin, but either ore can be smelted in either way, although reverberatory practice yields a purer metal.
In Europe, Australasia and one large works at Singapore it has been practically replaced by the reverberatory furnace process, first introduced into Cornwall about the year 1700.
In this process the purified ore is mixed with about one-fifth of its weight of a noncaking coal or anthracite smalls, the mixture being moistened to prevent it from being blown off by the draught, and is then fused on the sole of a reverberatory furnace for five or six hours.
In Colorado the pyritic ores containing gold and silver in association with copper are smelted in reverberatory furnaces for regulus, which, when desilverized by Ziervogel's method, leaves a residue containing 20 or 30 oz.
The calcination, or roasting, is conducted at a low temperature in some form of reverberatory furnace.
Yd., are removed monthly, their gold content being from 0.5 to 1 0%, and after folding are melted in reverberatory furnaces to ingots containing 2 to 4% of gold.
Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver.
Potassium carbonate, K 2 CO 3, popularly known as "potashes," was originally obtained in countries where wood was cheap by lixiviating wood ashes in wooden tubs, evaporating the solution to dryness in iron pots and calcining the residue; in more recent practice the calcination is carried out in reverberatory furnaces.
Grey iron castings are made by remelting the pig iron either in a small shaft of " cupola " furnace, or in a reverberatory or " air " furnace, with very little change of chemical composition, and then casting it directly into suitable moulds, usually of either " baked," i.e.
The uncovered basin-like bottom of a reverberatory furnace, under conditions of which fig.
The latter was formerly often constructed as a reverberatory furnace, which is easy to build and to work, but the hydrochloric acid given off here, being mixed with the products of the combustion of the fuel, cannot be condensed to strong acid and is partly, if not entirely, wasted.
It is called a " black-ash " furnace, and belongs to the class of reverberatory furnaces.
The drained crystals are dried and heated to redness in a reverberatory furnace; when " finished," the mass is of an impure white or light yellow colour and is sold as ordinary " soda-ash."
When the former is used it is roasted with calcium sulphate or alkali waste to form a matte which is then blown in a Bessemer converter or heated in a reverberatory furnace with a siliceous flux with the object of forming a rich nickel sulphide.
Roasted ores may be smelted in reverberatory furnaces (English process), or in blast-furnaces (German or Swedish process).
(2) Substance heated by products of combustion = reverberatory furnaces.
Such furnaces are known by the general name of reverberatory or reverbatory furnaces, also as air or wind furnaces, to distinguish them from those worked with compressed air or blast.
Originally the term cupola was used for the reverberatory furnace, but in the course of time it has changed its meaning, and is now given to a small blast furnace such as that used by iron-founders - reverberatory smelting furnaces in the same trade being called air furnaces.
2, 3 and 4 represent a reverberatory furnace such as is used for the fusion of copper ores for regulus, and may be taken as gener ally representing its class.
- Longitudinal section of Reverberatory r urnace.
- Reverberatory Furnace (horizontal section).
- Reverberatory Furnace (elevation at flue end).
According to the purposes to which they are applied, reverberatory furnaces may be classed into two groups, namely, fusion or melting furnaces, and calcining or wasting furnaces, also called calciners.
The native chrome-ironstone (Cr 2 O 3 FeO) may be used in this way as a source of such compounds, being fused in a reverberatory furnace, along with soda-ash and lime, the oxidizing agent in this case being atmospheric oxygen.
It is obtained commercially by roasting arsenical pyrites in either a Brunton's or Oxland's rotatory calciner, the crude product being collected in suitable condensing chambers, and afterwards refined by resublimation, usually in reverberatory furnaces, the foreign matter being deposited in a long flue leading to the condensing chambers.
The roasting is carried on in hand and mechanical reverberatory furnaces, and occasionally in muffle-furnaces.