The gross revenue of all the states is estimated at 24 millions sterling.
Revenue is derived principally from customs duties, direct taxation being light.
The revenue from stamps includes as its chief items the returns from stamped paper, stamps on goods traffic, securities and share certificates and receipts and cheques..
The state revenue is derived mainly from a general property tax, licence taxes levied on various businesses and occupations, a collateral inheritance tax and a capitation tax.
The revenue in the Italian financial year 1905-1906 (July I, 1905 to June 30, 1906) was 102,486,108, and the expenditure 99,945,253, or, subtracting the partite di giro, 99,684,121 and 97,143,266, leaving a surplus of 2,54o,855.f The surplus was made up by contributions from every branch of the effective revenue, except the contributions and repayments from local authorities.
Corporations are run by "officers," comprised of multiple "divisions," and set revenue "targets."
Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is obtained.
Expenditure for the year 1902-1903 was 889,858 and revenue 818,674.
The bulk of this indebtedness has been contracted for the purpose of constructing railways, tramways, water-supplies, and other revenue-producing works and services, and it is estimated that only 8% of the total indebtedness can be set down for unproductive services.
Bills imposing taxation or appropriating revenue must not originate in the Senate, and neither taxation bills nor bills appropriating revenue for the annual service of the government may be amended in the Senate, but the Senate may return such bills to the House of Representatives with a request for their amendment.
The revenue, £190,000 of which is drawn from the state domains, stands at about £480,000 a year.
Adding to this 1,240,000 of communal and provincial subsidies, the product of the labor of inmates, temporary subscriptions, &c., the net revenue available for charity was, during i88o, 3,860,000.
According to the census of 1871 there were in the city and province of Rome 474 monastic establishments (311 for monks, 163 for nuns), occupied by 4326 monks and 3825 nuns, and possessing a gross revenue of 4,780,89i lire.
The duke of Dorset's reappointment to the lord-lieutenancy in 1751, with his son Lord George Sackville as secretary of state for Ireland, strengthened the primate's position and enabled him to triumph over the popular party on the constitutional question as to the right of the Irish House of Commons to dispose of surplus Irish revenue, which the government maintained was the property of the Crown.
During his tenancy of office the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports.
Of all their numerous sources of revenue, the money furnished by Mr Hart was the only certain asset which could be offered as security for Chinese loans.
Dupin de Francueil, a farmer-general of the revenue, who married the widow of Count Horn, a natural son of Louis XV., she in her turn being the natural daughter of Maurice de Saxe, the most famous of the many illegitimate children of Augustus the Strong, by the lovely countess of Konigsmarck.
At the same time a settlement of the land revenue on leases for five years was begun, and the police and military systems of the country were placed upon a new footing.
Zaminddrs, or government renters, were arrested on mesne process; the sanctity of the zendna, or women's chamber, as dear to Hindus as to Mahommedans, was violated by the sheriff's officer; the deepest feelings of the people and the entire fabric of revenue administration were alike disregarded.
His extreme impecuniosity made him from the first subservient to the Polish senate and nobles (szlachta), who deprived him of the control of the mint - then one of the most lucrative sources of revenue of the Polish kings - curtailed his prerogative, and generally endeavoured to reduce him to a subordinate position.
Of the revenue in 1905 (1503/4 million pounds) the four direct taxes produced approximately 20 millions.
The Common wealth is empowered to retain one-fourth of the net revenue from customs and excise, the balance must be handed back to the states.
2,824,182 Other revenue 55,676 £11,879,343 The return made to the states was £7,385,731, so that the actual revenue disposed of by the Commonwealth was less by that amount, or £4,493,612.
The states have a total revenue, from sources apart from the Commonwealth, of £23,820,439, and if to this be added the return of customs duties made by the federal government, the total revenue is £31,206,170.
Per inhabitant, from indirect taxation £2: 4: 6, and the total revenue from all sources £35,699,782, equal to £8: 16: 2 per inhabitant.
It contains eighty-two villages and hamlets, has a revenue of about £4000, and a population of about 23,000.
Public convenience, with the loss of revenue and cost of repairs, must together decide the question of either making very extensive renewals or even abandoning the whole cable.
The number of messages increased from about 6,500,000 in 1869 to nearly io,000,000 in 1871 and to 20,000,000 in 1875, but the expectations as to net revenue were not justified by the results.
Gaine, general manager of the company, stated before the Select Committee that in the view of the directors the bargain was a hard one, because it gave no consideration in respect of the goodwill of the great business, with its gross income of over £ 2,000,000 per annum and its net revenue of over £750,000, which the company had built up. The company had had to pay for all the experiments and mistakes which are inherent in the launching and development of any new industry.
The gross revenue derived from the trunk services was £480,658, being an average of 5.82d.
The Italian sees (exclusive of Rome and of the suburbicarian sees) have a total annual revenue of 206,000 equal to an average of 800 per see.
There were thus disestablished in seven or eight years 2075 houses of the regular clergy occupied by 3I,649persons;andtheconfiscated property yielded a revenue of 398,298.
An annuity equal to the ascertained revenue of the suppressed institutions was placed to the credit of the fund in the government 5% consols.
Excepting the in creases of deficit in 1868 and 1870, the annual deficits tended thence forward to decrease, until in 1875 equilibrium between expendituri and revenue was attained, and was maintained until 1881.
Taxable revenue corresponds to two-thirds of actual income from factories and to three-fourths of actual income from houses; it is ascertained by the agents of the financial administration.
The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
The corn-growers and the revenue collectors were ruined by exorbitant imposts or by the iniquitous cancelling of contracts; temples and private houses were robbed of their works of art; and the rights of Roman citizens were disregarded.
The revenue of the republic is derived mainly from customs and excise, and the largest item of expenditure is the service of the public debt.
The following table shows the rapid growth of the state revenue of France during the period 1875-1905, the figures for the specified years representing millions of pounds.
Including the total receipts derived from the customs, the Commonwealth revenue, during the year 1906, was made up as follows: Customs and excise £8,999,485 Posts, telegraphs, &c..
Votes for the appropriation of the revenue shall not pass unless recommended by the governor-general.
But in July 1908 a Surplus Revenue Act was passed which was based on a different interpretation of the constitution.
The powers of the two houses are equal except that revenue measures must originate in the House of Representatives.
The chief sources of revenue for the state are a corporation tax, a collateral inheritance tax (1904) and a licence tax.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
A part of the revenue of confiscated church lands was allotted to the maintenance of schools, and the question of national education was seriously taken in hand by the Commonwealth.
Cromwell's government seemed now established on the firmer footing of law and national approval, he himself obtaining the powers though not the title of a constitutional monarch, with a permanent revenue of £1,300,000 for the ordinary expenses of the administration, the command of the forces, the right to nominate his successor and, subject to the approval of parliament, the members of the council and of the new second chamber now established, while at the same time the freedom of parliament was guaranteed in its elections.
A further cause has been competition offered by the telephone service, but against this the Post Office has received royalties from telephone companies and revenue from trunk telephone lines.
In each department an official collector (Trsorier payeur genral) receives the taxes and public revenue collected therein and accounts for them to the central authority in Paris.
The Italian parishes had in 1901 a total gross revenue, including assignments from the public worship endowment fund, of 1,280,000 or an average of 63 per parish; 51% of this gross sum consists of revenue from glebe lands.
In that year their income, including revenue from capital, was 416,385, and their expenditure 300,232.
From the date when Mr Hart took up his duties at Peking, in 1863, he unceasingly devoted the whole of his energies to the work of the department, with the result that the revenue grew from upwards of eight million taels to nearly twenty-seven million, collected at the thirty-two treaty ports, and the customs staff, which in 1864 numbered 200, reached in 1901 a total of 57 0 4.
After the establishment of responsible government the main issue was how to tax the citizens.