The same year he introduced a Test Oath by which all holding office or seats in either House of Parliament were to declare resistance to the royal power a crime, and promise to abstain from all attempts to alter the government of either church or state; but this extreme measure of retrograde toryism was successfully opposed by wiser statesmen.
He was, however, the first to show clearly that the Ratitae are the retrograde descendants of flying ancestors, that the various groups of surviving Ratitae are, as such, a polyphyletic group, and he has gone fully into the interesting question of the development and subsequent loss of the power of flight, a loss which has taken place not only in different orders of birds but also at various geological periods, and is still taking place.
Brandt now retained very nearly the same arrangement as his predecessor; but, notwithstanding that he could trust to the firmer foundation of internal framework, he took at least two retrograde steps.
This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.
The Statute of the Six Articles (' 1 539), " the whip with six strings," was the outcome of the retrograde policy which distinguished the latter years of Henry VIII.
It is noteworthy, however, that in some instances there appears to have been a retrograde modification from the selenodont towards the bunodont type, the hippopotamus being a case in point.
On the other hand, in Merycopotamus, of the Lower Pliocene of India and Burma, the upper molars have lost the fifth intermediate cusp of Ancodon; and thus, although highly selenodont, might be easily modified, by a kind of retrograde development, into the trefoil-columned molars of Hippopotamus.
It was especially used to represent geometrically the periodic apparent retrograde motion of the outer planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, which we now know to be due to the annual revolution of the earth around the sun, but which in the Ptolemaic astronomy were taken to be real.
The old marshal vainly endeavoured to keep his own, Progressists within bounds in the Cortes of 1854-1856, and in the great towns, but their excessive demands for reforms and liberties played into the hands of a clerical and reactionary court and of the equally retrograde governing classes.
When a quorum, with some difficulty, was obtained, another period of retrograde legislation set in.
For the Chinese series has the strange peculiarity of proceeding in a retrograde direction or against the course of the sun.
For This Purpose They Are Placed In The Calendar (Table Iv.) Along With The Days Of The Month And Dominical Letters, In A Retrograde Order, So That The Asterisk Stands Beside The 1St Of January, 29 Beside The 2Nd, 28 Beside The 3Rd And So On To 1, Which Corresponds To The 30Th.
The Years Of The Hegira Are Purely Lunar, And Always Consist Of Twelve Lunar Months, Commencing With The Approximate New Moon, Without Any Intercalation To Keep Them To The Same Season With Respect To The Sun, So That They Retrograde Through All The Seasons In About 321 Years.
The system devised might have been justifiable as a check on a retrograde government, but was wholly inapplicable to a reforming government and a serious obstacle to the attainment of national prosperity.
And, after summoning Bath in vain, Monmouth, with a disordered force, began his retrograde march through Philips Norton and Frome, continually harassed by Feversham's soldiers.
While he had endeavoured to develop the material resources of the country, he had at the same time introduced retrograde measures in regard to religion and education.
A strong retrograde movement set in.
The Exclusion Bill and the limitation of James's powers were no more heard of, and full liberty was granted to the king to pursue the retrograde and arbitrary policy to which his disposition naturally inclined.
Only a few of the Romanists and more retrograde Utraquists obeyed his order.
This fact, which became known in Bohemia, secured for him the support of the Bohemian church reformers, while the Romanists and retrograde Utraquists were traditionally on the side of the house of Habsburg.
He had argued that all those who professed doctrines differing from the Church of Rome more widely than did the retrograde Utraquists, were outside the pale of religious toleration.
It referred to the Compacts that had been abolished, and was liable to an interpretation excluding from tolerance all but the Romanists and the retrograde Utraquists.
Ritschl, too, treats Pietism as a retrograde movement of Christian life towards Catholicism.
RETROGRADE (from the Lat.
The private manorial courts of the landowners, might even be regarded as retrograde in character~ from the point of view of administrative efficacy.
With the exception of the Cetacea, most of the Edentata, and the Sirenia, in which the teeth, when present, have been specialized in a retrograde or aberrant manner, the placental mammals as a whole have a dentition conforming more or less closely to the foregoing type.
The fish-eating, or piscivorous, type of dentition is exemplified under two phases in the dolphins and in the seals (being in the latter instance a kind of retrograde modification from the carnivorous type).
Actually, the line of nodes is in motion in a retrograde direction, the opposite of that of the arrows, by 19.3° per year, thus making a revolution in 186 years, or 6,793.39 days.
The inclination to the ecliptic is a little more than 5°, and the line of nodes performs a revolution in the retrograde direction in 18.6 years.
Between the years last mentioned-1866-1888 - the colony had suffered from the retrograde policy adopted by parliament in respect to the West African Settlements (vide Report of the Select Committee of 1865).
This reform was justified by the religious intolerance of the parlements; by their scandalous trials of Calas, Pierre Paid Sirven (1709-1777), the chevalier de la Barre and the comte de Lally; by the retrograde spirit that had made them suppress the Encyclopaedia in 1759 and condemn Emile in.