This is mixed with small coal, and when redistilled gives an enriched dust, and by repeating the process and distilling from cast iron retorts the metal is obtained.
For example, in the Gritti and Orlando processes the ore is charged into retorts and the fusion effected by superheated steam, the sulphur being run off as usual; or as was suggested by R.
It consists of a large stone chamber which communicates directly with two slightly slanting tubular retorts of iron.
The retorts are charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort fires.
The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.
The retorts of the prisoners were notable.
These distilling vessels are called retorts if they are supported only at the ends, and the furnace using them is termed a Belgian furnace.
In the Belgian process the reduction and distillation are carried out in cylindrical or elliptical retorts of fire-clay, from 3 ft.
Some fortysix or more retorts, arranged in parallel horizontal rows, are heated in one furnace.
The furnaces are square and open in front, to allow the outlet ends of the retorts to project; they are grouped together by fours; and their several chimneys are within the same enclosure.
After four days' heating the provisional front wall is removed piecemeal, and the retorts, after having been heated to redness, are inserted in corresponding sets.
The charge of the retorts consists of a mixture of 1100 lb of roasted calamine and 550 lb of dry powdered coal per furnace.
Supposing the last of these preliminary distillations to have been completed, the residues left in the retorts are removed, and the retorts, as they lie in the hot furnace, are charged by mean: of semi-cylindrical shovels, and their adapters put on.
The chief improvements in the plant of these processes are concerned with the manufacture of the retorts or muffles, and especially with the introduction of gas-firing.
Even a machine of simple type, like the ordinary drain-pipe machine, in which the retorts are made by forcing the plastic clay mixture through a die, may result in greater economy and uniformity than is possible when retorts are made by hand.
In the United States, Belgian furnaces of type (a) are built to contain 864 retorts; of type (b), to contain 300 to 400 retorts; and of type (c), preferably about 600 retorts.
The men who charge and empty the retorts, those who draw and cast the metal, and those who keep the furnace in repair, need not know anything about the making or using of gas, and the men who make the gas need not know anything about a zinc furnace.
Again, in direct-fired furnaces there are commonly seven or eight rows of retorts, one above another, so that to serve the upper rows the workman must stand upon a table, where he is exposed to the full heat of the furnace and requires a helper to wait upon him.
With gas-firing the retorts can be arranged in four horizontal rows, all within reach of a man on the furnace-room floor.
Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.
For dry distillations the retorts are generally horizontal cylinders, the bottom or lower surface being sometimes flattened.
Horizontal cylindrical retorts, holding from 200 to 1200 tb of amalgam, are used in the larger Californian mills, pot retorts being used in the smaller mills.
The bullion left in the retorts is then melted in black-lead crucibles, with the addition of small quantities of suitable fluxes, e.g.
In the liquation process the ore is heated in inclined cylindrical retorts, and the molten metal is tapped at the lower end; the residues being removed from the upper end.
It is manufactured by distilling wood in iron retorts at about 50o C., when an aqueous distillate, containing methyl alcohol, acetone, acetic acid and methyl acetic ester, is obtained.
The commercial salt is known as salvolatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, &c., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulphate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers.
Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely hydrofluoric acid, HF or H 2 F 2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles.
The disadvantage in this process is that the by-products, such as pyroligneous acid, acetone, wood spirit, &c., are lost; as an alternative method, wood is frequently carbonized in ovens or retorts and the volatile products are condensed and utilized.
The product obtained after burning is known either as kelp or varec. Another method of obtaining kelp is to heat the seaweed in large retorts, whereby tarry and ammoniacal liquors pass over and a very porous residue of kelp remains.
To produce the alkali metal, a calcined mixture of sodium carbonate, coal and chalk was strongly ignited in flat retorts made of boiler-plate; the sodium distilled over into condensers and was preserved under heavy petroleum.
Per lb, the greater part of the expense being due to the constant failure of the retorts; in 1887 Castner's sodium cost less than is.
Civ., 1881, p. 450) in which barium monoxide is heated in a current of air, forming the dioxide, which when the retorts are exhausted yields up oxygen and leaves a residue of monoxide; but this method is now being superseded, its place being taken by the fractional distillation of liquid air (The Times, Engin.
In this process the ammonium chloride is volatilized in large iron retorts lined with Doulton tiles, and then led into large upright wrought-iron cylinders lined with fire-bricks.
The product is then distilled from Stourbridge clay retorts, arranged in a galley furnace, previously heated to a red heat.
The second consideration is the form of the vessels; these may be open pans or dishes, or closed retorts, or combinations of both.
The majority of acid makers, however, prefer retorts made entirely of platinum, preferably provided by the Heraeus process with a dense, closely adherent coating of gold, including the top or "dome."
This furnace is also very well adapted for impure acids, unsuitable for platinum or platinum-gold stills on account of the crusts forming at the bottom of the retorts; and it is more and more coming into use both in Great Britain and on the Continent.
Condensation is a comparatively easy task in the case of platinum apparatus, but with glass or porcelain beakers or retorts it presents great difficulties.
On submitting a complex substance of this character to destructive distillation, it will be found that the yield and quality of the products will vary very considerably with the temperature existing in the retorts, with the size of the charge of coal used, with its distribution in the retort, with the length of time the distillation has been going on, and with an infinity of other factors of a more or less complex nature.
If the retorts are at a temperature of 1000° C. when the charge of coal is put in, the temperature of the distillation will vary from about 800° C. close to the walls, to about 400° C. in the centre of Effect of the coal; and in the same way, in the space above the coal, tempera- the products which come in contact with the sides of the tore in the retort are heated to 1000° C., whilst the gas near the coal retort.
The retorts in which the coal is carbonized are almostluniversally made of fire-clay, and in all but small country works the old singleended retort, which was about 9 ft.
The retorts are heated externally and are set in an arch, the construction depending upon the number of retorts, which varies from three to twelve.
The arch and its retorts is termed a bed or setting, and a row of beds constitutes a bench.
It is usual to have a separate furnace for each setting, the retorts resting upon walls built transversely in the furnace.
These gases enter the combustion chamber around the retorts at a high temperature, and are there supplied with sufficient air to complete their combustion, this secondary air supply being heated by the hot products of combustion on their way to the exit flue.
Complete combustion takes place at this point with the production of intense heat, the gases on rising are baffled in order to circulate them in every direction round the retorts, and upon arriving at the top of the setting they are conducted down a hollow chamber communicating with the main flue and shaft.
Retorts are set in either the horizontal, inclined or vertical position, and the advantages of the one over the other is a question upon which almost every gas engineer has his own views.
The introduction of labour-saving appliances into gas works has rendered the difficult work of charging and discharging horizontal retorts comparatively simple.
Formerly it was the practice to carry out such operations entirely by hand, men charging the retorts either by means of shovel or hand-scoop, and the coke produced being withdrawn with hand rakes.
The machines charge simultaneously at each end, so that the lids of the retorts may be shut immediately the coal enters.
Taking into account the original cost of such machines, and the unavoidable wear and tear upon the retorts brought about by using labour-saving appliances, and the fact that the coke-dust is very detrimental to the machinery, it is clear that the suggestion of setting the retorts at an incline in order to facilitate the work presented great inducements to the gas manager.
The object aimed at in thus setting retorts is to allow gravity to play the part of charging and discharging the coal and coke, the retorts being inclined at an angle to suit the slip of the class of coal used; this angle is between 28° and 34°.
In the case of horizontal retorts the space between the top of the coal and the retort is of necessity considerable in order to permit the introduction of the scoop and rake; the gas has therefore a free channel to travel along, but has too much contact with the highly heated surface of the retort before it leaves the mouthpiece.
In the case of inclined retorts this disadvantage is somewhat reduced, but with vertical retorts the ideal conditions can be more nearly approached.
The heating as well as the illuminating value of the gas per unit volume is lowered by over-baking, and Dr Bueb gives the following figures as to the heating value of gas obtained from the same coal but by different methods of carbonization: Vertical Retorts, 604 British thermal units per cub.
Into the liquid, and so makes a seal that allows of any retort being charged singly without the risk of the gas produced from the other retorts in the bench escaping _7 c - through the open retort.
Gas leaves the retorts saturated with naphthalene, and its capacity for holding that impurity seems to be augmented by the presence of water vapour.
Moreover, by putting the retorts under a slight vacuum, the amount of gas produced is increased by about 12%, and is of better quality, owing to its leaving the heated retort more quickly.
The retorts in the desired proportion, and the mixture of water gas and coal gas is then carburetted to the required extent by benzol vapour, a process which at the present price of oil and benzol is distinctly more economical than the use of carburetted water gas.