The Ghegs especially, notwithstanding their fierce and lawless character, their superstition, ignorance and predatory propensities, possess some noteworthy qualities rarely found in eastern Europe: simple, brave, faithful, and sometimes capable of devoted attachment, these wild mountaineers make excellent soldiers and trustworthy retainers; they have long furnished a bodyguard to the sultan and, like the Tosks, are much employed as kavasses and attendants at foreign embassies and consulates in the East.
No measures had been taken to supply these voluntary crusaders with food or clothing; as harvest-time approached, the landlords commanded them to return to reap the fields, and on their refusing to do so, proceeded to maltreat their wives and families and set their armed retainers upon the half-starved multitudes.
Retainers, who were wont formerly to wander about as free lances, gave up their roving mode of life, settled down permanently in one principality, became landed proprietors, and.
For this purpose he organized, outside the regular administration, a large corps of civil officials and armed retainers, whose duty it was to obey him implicitly in all things; and with this force, which rose rapidly from 1000 to 6000 men, he acted like a savage invader in a conquered country.
"The flight of the earls," one of the most celebrated episodes in Irish history, occurred on the 14th of September 1607, when Tyrone and Tyrconnel embarked at midnight at Rathmullen on Lough Swilly, with their wives, families and retainers, numbering ninety-nine persons, and sailed for Spain.
The lord of the manor with his officials and retainers, the peasantry bound to him by ties of personal dependence and mutual rights and obligations, constituted a little world, in which we can watch the play of motives and passions not so dissimilar as we are sometimes led to believe from those of the great modern world.
Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
He gathered by degrees around him "a kind of feudal clan of servants and retainers," and he plunged, with more generous ardour than coolness of judgment, into the troubled politics of the country.
Whenever the cultivation 'of his estate and the vigorous championship of his Samoan retainers gave him the leisure, Stevenson was during these years almost wholly occupied in writing romances of Scottish life.
Assembly, of the household of personal followers or retainers of a king, earl or chief, contrasted with the "folkmoot," the assembly of the whole people.
The mother, fearful lest her son should share his father's fate, flies to the woods, either alone with one attendant, or with a small body of faithful retainers, and there brings up her son in ignorance of his name, his parentage and all knightly accomplishments.
Down to the end of this era painting was entirely in the hands of a patrician castecourtiers, priests, feudal nobles and their military retainers, all men of high education and gentle birth, living in a polished circle.
DEMESNE (DEMEINE, DEMAIN, DOMAIN, &C.), 1 that portion of the lands of a manor not granted out in freehold tenancy, but (a) retained by the lord of the manor for his own use and occupation or (b) let out as tenemental land to his retainers or "villani."
An attempt at an insurrection was made by the inhabitants of Rome even before Otto left the city, and on his departure John returned at the head of a formidable company of friends and retainers, and caused Leo to seek safety in immediate flight.
Here they lived like little princes, surrounded by thousands of retainers, whom they kept for show alone, making no attempt to organize and discipline this excellent military material for the defence of their defenceless country.
The fyrd was gradually superseded by the gathering of the thegns and their retainers, but it was occasionally called out for defensive purposes even after the Norman Conquest.
In a tertiary sense the word appears to have been occasionally employed as equivalent to the Latin miles - usually translated by thegn - which in the earlier middle ages was used as the designation of the domestic as well as of the martial officers or retainers of sovereigns and princes or great personages.
Around the Anglo-Saxon magnates were collected a crowd of retainers and dependants of all ranks and conditions; and there is evidence enough to show that among them were some called cnihtas who were not always the humblest or least considerable of their number.'
In this way funds for war were placed at the free disposal of sovereigns, and, although the feudatories and their retainers still formed the most considerable portion of their armies, the conditions under which they served were altogether changed.
Many senators were put to death, and their places remained unfilled; the lower classes were deprived of their arms and employed in erecting splendid monuments, while the army was recruited from the king's own retainers and from the forces of foreign allies.
The Mahmal, a kind of covered litter, first originated by Queen Sheger-ed-Dur, is brought into the city in procession, though not with as much pomp as when it leaves with the pilgrims. These and other processions have lost much of their effect since the extinction of the Mamelukes, and the gradual disuse of gorgeous dress for the retainers of the,, officers of state.
After the death of the Sultan TUrgnshgh, his step-mother at first was raised to the vacant throne, when she committed the administration of affairs to the captain of the retainers, Aibek; but the rule of a queen caused scandal to the Moslem world, and Shajar al-durr gave way to this sentiment by marrying Aibek and allowing the title sultan to be conferred on him instead o~ herself.
The money could not be collected, and the edicts against private wars and the maintenance of armed retainers were hard to enforce.
The methods of binding the pagri are innumerable, each method having a distinctive name as arabi (Arab fashion); mansabi (official fashion, much used in the Deccan); mushakhi (sheik fashion); chakridar (worn by hadjis, that is those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca); khirki-dar (a fashion of piling the cloth high, adopted by retainers of great men); latudar (top-shaped, worn by kayasths or writers); joridar (the cloth twisted into rope shape) (Plate I.
Originally any inhabitant holding a certain measure of land, freehold or subject to the mere nominal ground-rent abovementioned, was a full citizen independently of his calling, the clergy and the lord's retainers and servants of whatever rank, who claimed exemption from scot and lot, to use the English formula, alone excepted.
The barons brought up many armed retainers to the parliament of 1321, and forced the king to dismiss and to condemn them to exile.
Assault on the person and retinue of Edwards queen, Isabella of - France, by the retainers of Lord Badlesmere, one of Pembrokes associates, provoked universal reprobation.
Though he backed his demands by armed demonstrationtwice calling out his friends and retainers to support his policyhe carefully refrained for five long years from actual violence.
Up to this moment the civil war had been conducted like a great faction fight; the barons and their livened retainers had been wont to seek some convenient heath or hill and there to fight out their quarrel with the minimum of damage to the countryside.
And Queen Margaret down through the peerage and the knighthood to the clerks and household retainers of the late king.
He was strong, not so much by reason of his vast estates and his numerous retainers, as by reason of the confidence which the greater part of the nation placed in him.
De Lacy sublet the land among kinsmen and retainers, and to his grants the families of Nugent, Tyrell, Nangle, Tuyt, Fleming and others owe their importance in Irish history.
Fought between the retainers of William, Lord Berkeley, son of James, and those who followed Thomas Talbot, Viscount Lisle, grandson of the illustrious Talbot and great-grandson of the countess of Warwick, this was the last private battle on English ground between two feudal lords.
It fell heavily upon the baronage and their retainers, but passed lightly, for the most part, over the heads of the middle classes.
A few days later, having packed London with his own armed retainers and those of Buckingham and his other confidants, he openly put forward his pretensions to the throne.
Finding that the rest of the plan had miscarried, Buckinghams retainers melted away from him, and he was forced to fly.
Henry put it down with a strong hand, forbidding all liveries entirely, save for the mere domestic retainers of each magnate.
For some hasty words, amplified by the doubtful evidence of treacherous retainers,, ,~t together with a foolish charge of dabbling with astro~t~e ~n logers, the heir of the royal line ~ Thomas of Woodstock duke of had been tried and executed with scandalous haste.
De Beausset bowed low, with that courtly French bow which only the old retainers of the Bourbons knew how to make, and approached him, presenting an envelope.
"In that case you are very welcome!" cried all the servants, and it pleased the Wizard to note the respect with which the royal retainers bowed before him.
"Uncle" dismounted at the porch of his little wooden house which stood in the midst of an overgrown garden and, after a glance at his retainers, shouted authoritatively that the superfluous ones should take themselves off and that all necessary preparations should be made to receive the guests and the visitors.