In Velella the pneumatophore becomes of complex structure and sends air-tubes, lined by a chitin and resembling tracheae, down into the compact coenosarc, thus evidently serving a respiratory as well as a hydrostatic function.
He defined them as possessing radial instead of bilateral symmetry, and as apparently destitute of nervous system and sense organs, as having the circulatory system rudimentary or absent, and the respiratory organs on or coextensive with the surface of the body; he included under this title and definition five classes, - Echinodermata, Acalepha, Entozoa, Polypi and Infusoria.
These respiratory processes are associated with the liberation of energy by the protoplasm, energy which it applies to various purposes.
The partial asphyxiation or suffocation stimulates the protoplasm to set up a new and perhaps supplementary series of decompositions, which result in the liberation of energy just as do those of the respiratory process.
The now well-known fact that small doses of poisonous substances may act as stimuli to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform, ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever, and other responses to the presence of irritating agents.
The breathing becomes shallow, the drug killing, like nearly all neurotic poisons (alcohol, morphia, prussic acid, &c.), by paralysis of the respiratory centre, and the patient dying in a state of coma.
The plasma is coloured red by haemoglobin: it is sometimes (in Sabella and a few other Polychaeta) green, which tint is due to another respiratory pigment.
Carbon from the atmosphere, and produce, besides nitrogenous food materials, a very large amount of the carbohydrate sugar, as respiratory and fat-forming food for the live stock of the farm.
Thus, then, alike for maintenance, for increase, and for the exercise of force, the exigencies of the system are characterized more by the demand for the digestible nonnitrogenous or more specially respiratory and fat-forming constituents than by that for the nitrogenous or more specially flesh-forming ones.
The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
Pectinibranchia.-In this order there is no longer any trace of bilateral symmetry in the circulatory, respiratory and excretory organs, the topographically right half of the pallial complex having completely disappeared, except the right kidney, which is FIG.
Dorsal respiratory appendages frequently present.
Anterior tentacles in the form of a digging shield; mantle without appendages, but respiratory papillae beneath the mantle-border.
The ctenidium is atrophied, and the edge of the mantle-skirt is fused to the dorsal integument by concrescence, except at one point which forms the aperture of the mantle-chamber, thus converted into a nearly closed sac. Air is admitted to this sac for respiratory and hydrostatic purposes, and it thus becomes a lung.
But the pupa hangs from the surface by means of paired respiratory trumpets on the prothorax, the dorsal thoracic surface, where the cuticle splits to allow the emergence of the fly, being thus directed towards the upper air.
For the Heteronemertines arguments have been adduced to prove that here they have the physiological significance of a special respiratory apparatus for the central nervous tissue, which in all these forms is strongly charged with haemoglobin.
Such could hardly be obtained in any other way by those worms that have no special respiratory apparatus, and that live in mud and under stones where the natural supply of freshly oxygenated sea-water is practicaily limited.
No respiratory or circulatory organs are known.
In the mature stage Pentastomida live in the respiratory passages of mammalia, principally in the nasal cavities.
The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water.
In 1883-1886 Bateson showed by his embryological researches that the Enteropneusta exhibit chordate (vertebrate) affinities in respect of the coelomic, skeletal and nervous systems as well as in regard to the respiratory system, and, further, that the gill-slits are formed upon a plan similar to that of the gillslits of Amphioxus, being subdivided by tongue-bars which depend from the dorsal borders of the slits.
The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Amphioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.
The respiration becomes slower owing to a paralytic action on the respiratory centre and, in warm-blooded animals, death is due to this action, the respiration being arrested before the action of the heart.
N.S.), and in a series of subsequent memoirs, in which the structure of the entosternum, of the coxal glands, of the eyes, of the veno-pericardiac muscles, of the respiratory lamellae, and of other parts, was for the first time described, and in which the new facts discovered were shown uniformly to support the hypothesis that Limulus is an Arachnid.
Their minute structure is closely similar in the two cases; the leaf-like plates receive blood from the great sternal sinus, and serve as respiratory organs.
But they have lost their respiratory function.
In any case it is clear that we have in these muscles an apparatus'for causing the blood to flow differentially in increased volume into either the pericardium, through the veins leading from the respiratory organs, or from the body generally into the great sinuses which bring the blood to the respiratory organs.
These muscles act so as to pump the blood through the respiratory organs.
It is not surprising that with so highly developed an arterial system Limulus and Scorpio should have a highly developed mechanism for determining the flow of blood to the respiratory organs.
In the numerous degenerate forms simplification occurs by obliteration of the demarcations of somites and the fusion of body-regions, together with a gradual suppression of the lamelliferous respiratory organs and the substitution for them of tracheae, which, in their turn, in the smaller and most reduced members of the group, may also disappear.
The Eu-arachnida are divided into two grades with reference to the condition of the respiratory organs as adapted to aquatic or terrestrial life.
Though there are indications of lamelliform respiratory appendages on mesosomatic somites following that bearing the genital operculum, we cannot be said to have any proper knowledge as to such appendages, and further evidence with regard to them is much to be desired.
In primitive forms the respiratory lamellae of the appendages of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th, or of the 1st and 2nd mesosomatic somites are sunk beneath the surface of the body, and become adapted to breathe atmospheric oxygen, forming the leaves of the so-called lung-books.
It is probable that the Silurian scorpion was an aquatic animal, and that its respiratory lamellae were still projecting from the surface of the body to serve as branchiae.
On the other hand, no trace of respiratory appendages excepting the pectens can be detected in the specimen (see fig.
Respiratory organs present in the form of pulmonary sacs.
No distinct respiratory stigmata behind the sterna of the 1st and 2nd somites of the opisthosoma.
Respiratory organs, as in Urotricha.
Respiratory organs (see fig.
Respiratory organs tracheal, opening upon the ventral surface of the 2nd and 3rd, and sometimes also of the 4th somite of the opisthosoma.
Respiratory organs tracheal, opening by a pair of spiracles in the prosoma above the base of the fifth appendage on IV III I composed, at least in many cases, of eleven somites, the 1 1 th somite very small, often hidden within the loth.
Respiratory organs in the form of tracheal tubes opening by a pair of stigmata in the 2nd and 3rd somites of the opisthosoma.
Respiratory organs tracheal, opening by a pair of stigmata situated immediately behind the basal segments of the 6th pair of appendages on what is probably the sternum of the 2nd opisthosomatic somite and also in some cases upon the 5th segment of the legs.
- Degenerate Arachnids resembling the Opiliones in many structural points, but chiefly distinguishable from them by the following features: - The basal segments of the appendages of the 2nd pair are united in the middle line behind the mouth, those of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs are widely separated and not provided with sterno-coxal (maxillary) lobes, and take no share in mastication; the respiratory stigmata, when present, belong to the prosoma, and the primitive segmentation of the opisthosoma has entirely or almost entirely disappeared.
The channels of entrance are usually by the respiratory or the alimentary tract, also by the skin.
Larvae of Anophelinae, on the other hand - which are grey, green or brown in colour, and often extremely difficult to see - have no respiratory siphon and lie almost !
I), and breathe by means of a pair of respiratory trumpets on the thorax.
The cobra venom is supposed to extinguish the functions of the various nerve-centres of the cerebro-spinal system, the paralysation extending from below upwards, and it has a special affinity for the respiratory centre.
There are five alkaline springs with temperatures from 69° to 102° F., the waters of which are specific in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, gout, rheumatism and diabetes.
The pure acid thus obtained is a most dangerous substance to handle, its vapour even when highly diluted with air having an exceedingly injurious action on the respiratory organs, whilst inhalation of the pure vapour is followed by death.