Terrestrial plants have a gaseous interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide which is necessary for respiration and feeding.
Reluctantly she pulled away, her pulse and respiration in a race.
Its function is less that of respiration than of FIG.
The respiration becomes slower owing to a paralytic action on the respiratory centre and, in warm-blooded animals, death is due to this action, the respiration being arrested before the action of the heart.
The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.
No organs of circulation or respiration are known; but the nervous system is well developed, and consists of a pair of ganglia corresponding with the limbs and connected by longitudinal commissural chords.
It possesses only slight influence over the heart and respiration, but it has a specific effect on mucous membranes as the elimination of the drug takes place largely through the lungs, where it aids in loosening bronchial secretions.
He also studied the chemistry of combustion and of respiration, and made experiments in physiology, where, however, he was hampered by the "tenderness of his nature" which kept him from anatomical dissections, especially of living animals, though he knew them to be "most instructing."
Respiration is effected by means of external gills placed along both sides of the dorsum of the abdomen and hinder segments of the thorax.
The least wind raises clouds of fine dust, which fill the air, render it so opaque as to obscure the noonday sun, and make respiration difficult.
These openings are small and provided with a valve interiorly, which is opened during respiration, and closed when the animal dives.
The mode of blowing is peculiar, and requires some practice; an uninterrupted blast is kept up by the muscular action of the cheeks, while the ordinary respiration goes on through the nostrils.
Such healing by cork formation is accompanied by a rise of temperature: the active growth of the dividing cells is accompanied by vigorous metabolism and respiration, and a state of wound fever supervenes until the healing is completed.
Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
Forms adapted to terrestrial life and to aerial respiration occur in various divisions of Gastropods, and do not constitute a single homogeneous group. Thus the Helicinidae, which are terrestrial, are now placed among the Aspidobranchia.
Specially characteristic of the class, however, is the presence of a complex system of air-tubes (tracheae) for respiration, usually opening to the exterior by a series of paired spiracles on certain of the body segments.
The physiology of respiration has been carefully studied by F.
Chladni's experiment of strewing a vibrating bell with flour, investigated the nature of sound and the function of the air in respiration and combustion, and originated the idea of using the pendulum as a measure of gravity.
Respiration becomes shallow with the increasing coma.
Respiration is conducted by the general surface, by the branchial lamina (external branch) of the feet, and the vesicular appendage (when present) at the base of this branch.
In 1865 Kowalevsky discovered that the organs of respiration consist of numerous pairs of gill-slits leading from the digestive canal through the thickness of the body-wall to the exterior.
The water which bears the oxygen for respiration and the minute organisms upon which the Brachiopod feeds is swept into the mantle cavity by the action of the cilia which cover the arms, and the eggs and excreta pass out into the same cavity.
The antipyretic action which considerable doses of aconite display is not specific, but is the result of its influence on the circulation and respiration and of its slight diaphoretic action.
The difference between the gill-books of Limulus and the lung-books of Scorpio depends on the fact that the latter are adapted to aerial respiration, while the former serve for aquatic respiration.
(From Lankester, "Limulus an Arachnid.) of adaptation to the changed physiological conditions of respiration, and not of morphological significance, since a pair of renal excretory tubes of this nature is found in certain Amphipod Crustacea (Talorchestia, &c.) which have abandoned a purely aquatic life.
They have appeared independently in connexion with a change in the excretion of nitrogenous waste in Arachnids, Crustacea, and the other classes of Arthropoda when aerial, as opposed to aquatic, respiration has been established - and they have been formed in some cases from the mesenteron, in other cases from the proctodaeum.
It is clear that Swedenborg showed (150 years before any other scientist) that the motion of the brain was synchronous with the respiration and not with the action of the heart and the circulation of the blood, a discovery the full bearings of which are still far from being realized.
To admit of the free inflow and outflow of currents of water necessary for respiration, which is effected by means of filamentous abdominal tracheal gills, the two ends of the tube are open.
The quantity of air required for a large colliery depends upon the number of men employed, as for actual respiration from zoo to 200 cub.
In., was supplied for respiration through a reducing valve which brought it down nearly to atmospheric pressure.
The newer forms are based upon the principle, first enunciated by Professor Theodor Schwann in 1854, of carrying compressed oxygen instead of air, and returning the products of respiration through a regenerator containing absorptive media for carbonic acid and water, the purified current being returned to the mouth with an addition of fresh oxygen.
Mayow perceived the similarity of the processes of respiration and combustion, and showed that one constituent of the atmosphere, which he termed spiritus nitro-aereus, was essential to combustion and life, and that the second constituent, which he termed spiritus nitri acidi, inhibited combustion and life.
Ammonia should be given by inhalation, and artificial respiration must never be forgotten, as by it the paralysed breathing may be compensated for and the poison excreted.
In respiration he argued that the same particles are consumed, because he found that when a small animal and a lighted candle were placed in a closed vessel full of air the candle first went out and soon afterwards the animal died, but if there was no candle present it lived twice as long.
It is also necessary, he inferred, for all muscular movements, and he thought there was reason to believe that the sudden contraction of muscle is produced by its combination with other combustible (salino-sulphureous) particles in the body; hence the heart, being a muscle, ceases to beat when respiration is stopped.
A large lethal dose kills by this action, but the minimum lethal dose by its combined action on the respiration and the heart.
The respiration is at first accelerated by a dose of physostigmine, but is afterwards slowed and ultimately arrested.
Aristotle had imputed to all living beings a soul, though to plants only in the sense of a vegetative, not a sensitive, activity, and in Moleschott's time many scientific men still accepted some sort of vital principle, not exactly soul, yet over and above bodily forces in organisms. Moleschott, like Lotze, not only resisted the whole hypothesis of a vital principle, but also, on the basis of Lavoisier's discovery that respiration is combustion, argued that the heat so produced is the only force developed in the organism, and that matter therefore rules man.
In ccllapse following severe haemorrhage and in sudden and accidental arrest of the heart or respiration during chloroform narcosis an intramuscular injection of 1 gr.
Respiration in plants, as in other organisms, is a process that goes on by night as well as by day and consists in plants in the breaking up of the complex carbonaceous substances formed by assimilation into less complex and more transportable substances.
Thiourea and many of its unsymmetrical derivatives have marked physiological action; thiourea causes a slowing of the pulse and respiration, cardiac failure, and death in convulsions; phenyl-, ethyland acetyl-thiourea are actively toxic. The most important derivative pharmacologically is allyl-thiourea, also known as thiosinamine or rhodallin, NH2 CS NH CH2 CH:CH2.
He also worked at fermentation, respiration and animal heat, looking upon the processes concerned as essentially chemical in nature.
The need of the protoplasm for oxygen has already been spoken of: in its absence death soon supervenes, respiration being stopped.
I; Richards, The Respiration of Wounded Plants, Ann.
As mentioned above, respiration by means of airtubes (tracheae) is a most characteristic feature of the Hexapoda.
Joly, the very young larvae have no breathing organs, and respiration is effected through the skin.
The extreme pain and rapid swelling of the vocal cords - with threatened obstruction to the respiration - that characterize acute laryngitis may often be relieved by the sedative action of this drug upon the circulation.
In effect, therefore, Mayow - who also gives a remarkably correct anatomical description of the mechanism of respiration - preceded Priestley and Lavoisier by a century in recognizing the existence of oxygen, under the guise of his spiritus nitro-aereus, as a separate entity distinct from the general mass of the air; he perceived the part it plays in combustion and in increasing the weight of the calces of metals as compared with metals themselves; and, rejecting the common notions of his time that the use of breathing is to cool the heart, or assist the passage of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart, or merely to agitate it, he saw in inspiration a mechanism for introducing oxygen into the body, where it is consumed for the production of heat and muscular activity, and even vaguely conceived of expiration as an excretory process.
The patient is then seized with violent convulsions of a tetanic character; the arms are stretched out, respiration impeded, the muscles are rigid, the body is thrown into opisthotonos, i.e.
If death from asphyxia appears imminent artificial respiration may be resorted to.
In some cases the branchial respiration a p pears to be insufficient, and the intestinal tract acts as an accessory breathing organ.
Respiration, indeed, is the expression of the liberation of the potential energy of the protoplasm itself.
If the access of oxygen to a protoplast is interfered with its normal respiration soon ceases, but frequently other changes supervene.
The work of the leaves may briefly be stated to consist of the processes of nutrition, respiration and transpiration.
The pulse and respiration steadily fail, death occurring from asphyxia.
Taken internally aconite acts very notably on the circulation, the respiration and the nervous system.